zalcitabine


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zalcitabine

 [zal-si´tah-bēn]
a nucleoside analogueantiretroviral agent that inhibits the action of reverse transcriptase; used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, administered orally.

zalcitabine

/zal·ci·ta·bine/ (zal-si´tah-bēn) 2′3′-dideoxycytidine, an antiretroviral agent that inhibits the action of reverse transcriptase; used in the treatment of HIV infection.

zalcitabine

(zăl′sĭ-tə-bīn′)
n.
A nucleoside analog antiviral drug that inhibits the replication of retroviruses such as HIV by interfering with the enzyme reverse transcriptase. Also called ddC.

zalcitabine

an antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor analog. Also called ddC, dideoxycytidine.
indications It was prescribed in combination with other drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infections. The sale and distribution of this medication was discontinued in the United States in 2006.
contraindications The drug should not be given to patients with an allergy to zalcitabine or any of its components. Zalcitabine is not a cure, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients may continue to acquire symptoms associated with the disease. Caution is recommended in patients with low CD4 cell counts, esophageal ulcers, numbness or tingling in the extremities, or a history of pancreatitis or alcohol abuse.
adverse effects The side effects most often reported include nausea, appetite loss, stomach pain, headache, dizziness, fatigue, dry mouth, and night sweats.

zalcitabine

ddC, Hivid AIDS A purine analogue that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase; it is similar didanosine vis-á-vis survival, progression, CD4 count, adverse effects, efficacy. See Didanosine, Reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Cf Protease inhibitor.

zalcitabine

A REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE inhibitor drug used in combination with other drugs to treat AIDS. A brand name is Hivid.

zalcitabine, (zal´sitə-bēn´),

n brand name: Hivid;
drug class: synthetic pyrimidine antiviral;
action: converted by cellular enzymes to active drug; functions as antimetabolite to inhibit replication of HIV in vitro;
uses: used in combination with zidovudine in advanced HIV infection, second-line monotherapy if AZT tolerant.
References in periodicals archive ?
5] Nonstandard abbreviations: NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; nDNA, nuclear DNA; NASBA, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification; AZT, zidovudine; 3TC, lamivudine; IDV, indinavir; d4T stavudine; ddI, didanosine; ACTG, AIDS Clinical Trial Group; FCS, fetal calf serum; DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide; and ddC, zalcitabine.
Arons, we classified combination drug therapy used in the Florida Medicaid program into two groups: (i) two nucleoside analog drugs, including zidovudine (azt), didanosine (ddi), zalcitabine (ddc), stavudine (d4t), and lamivudine (3tc); (ii) one protease inhibitor and a pair of nucleoside analogs.
The small studies indicated that a combination of zidovudine and zalcitabine could raise the CD4 counts of AIDS patients.
For example, the drugs didanosine (ddI), zalcitabine (ddC), and stavudine (d4T) led to a loss of mtDNA in a line of cultured liver cells (Venhoff et al.
US FDA PREGNANCY CATEGORIES FOR CURRENTLY APPROVED ANTIRETROVIRALS Drug FDA category Abacavir C Didanosine B Emtricitabine B Lamivudine C Stavudine C Tenofovir B Zalcitabine C Zidovudine C Delavirdine C Efavi renz D Nevirapine C Amprenavir C Atazanavir B Darunavir B Fosamprenavir C Indinavir C Lopinavir + C ritonavir Nelfinavir B Ritonavir B Saquinavir B Tipranavir C Enfuvirtide B FDA categories defined as: A: Adequate and well-controlled studies of pregnant women fail to demonstrate a risk to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy (and no evidence exists of risk during later trimesters).
For example, a full chapter is devoted to zalcitabine, an agent that was discontinued in June 2006.
DELTA: a randomised double-blind controlled trial comparing combinations of zidovudine plus didanosine or zalcitabine with zidovudine dose in HIV-infected individuals.
Lamivudine OTC), zalcitabine (ddC), and emtricitabine (FTC) are cytidine analogs.
FDA Pregnancy Categories of Antiretroviral Drugs Nucleoside Nonnucleoside Reverse Reverse Transcriptase Transcriptase Protease Category Inhibitors Inhibitors Inhibitors B didanosine (ddl) atazanavir emtricitabine nelfinavir tenofovir ritonavir saquinavir C abacavir efavirenz amprenavir lamivudine (3TC) nevirapine indinavir stavudine (d4T) lopinavir/ritonavir zalcitabine (ddC) zidovudine (AZT) D Fusion Miscellaneous Category Inhibitors Agents B enfuvirtide C D hydroxyurea Note: No antiretroviral agents in pregnancy category A or X.
Toxicity occurs with the use of agents exhibiting more potent antimitochondrial activity, in the following general order: zalcitabine [greater than or equal to] didanosine [greater than or equal to] stavudine > lamivudine > zidovudine > and abacavir.
But the effect was seen only in patients taking neurotoxic antiretroviral therapy with agents such as didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), and zalcitabine (ddC).
By contrast, increased lactate was not associated with treatment with lamivudine, zidovudine, abacavir, zalcitabine, efavirenz, nevirapine, and interferon and/or ribavirin.