ABSTRACT The presence of the lipophilic toxins okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1, pectenotoxin-2, and yessotoxin (YTX) in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected between March 2009 and May 2010 was analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the mouse bioassay.
Comparison of oral and intraperitoneal toxicity of yessotoxin towards mice.
Dinoflagellate polyether within the yessotoxin, pectenotoxin and okadaic acid toxin groups: characterization, analysis and human health implications.
International collaborations with IMB to investigate human toxicity incidents include groups in Australia (new pectenotoxins), Ireland (azaspiracids, DSP), Japan (DSP, pectenotoxins), Portugal (ASP, DSP, pectenotoxins), Spain (DSP, PSP), Taiwan (DSP, PSP, microcystins), UK (ASP), USA (ASP), and New Zealand (gymnodimine, yessotoxin
, brevetoxins, DSP).
KEY WORDS: marine toxins, shellfish toxicity, yessotoxin, YTX, 45-hydroxy yessotoxin, carboxy yessotoxin, keto yessotoxin, Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax grindleyi, blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, LC-MS/MS, metabolism
Yessotoxin (YTX), a disulfated polyether toxin was first isolated by Murata et al.
binds to voltage-gated calcium/sodium channels, also resulting in increased cytosolic [Ca.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1, and other lipophilic toxins such as pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and yessotoxin were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
KEY WORDS: diarrhetic shellfish toxin, DSP, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin, pectenotoxin, yessotoxin, Dinophysis acuminata, LC-MS/MS
Shellfish flesh samples are tested for three groups of algal toxins toxin for which maximum permitted levels are set by the EU legislation - amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins (ASP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins (LTs) which include diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (DSP), pectenotoxins, yessotoxins
Phycotoxins are covered in alphabetical order and include: azaspiracids, brevetoxins, domoic acid, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxins
So far, these are the most relevant families of toxins for public health, as other families, such as yessotoxins
and pectenotoxins, do not seem to be relevant for human health because of their low oral potency (Anonymous 2004).