yessotoxin

yessotoxin

(yes″ō-tok′sĭn),

YTX

A poisonous disulfated polyether produced by marine algae. It causes heart and liver damage in people who ingest shellfish that have fed on the algae.
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International collaborations with IMB to investigate human toxicity incidents include groups in Australia (new pectenotoxins), Ireland (azaspiracids, DSP), Japan (DSP, pectenotoxins), Portugal (ASP, DSP, pectenotoxins), Spain (DSP, PSP), Taiwan (DSP, PSP, microcystins), UK (ASP), USA (ASP), and New Zealand (gymnodimine, yessotoxin, brevetoxins, DSP).
Other lipophilic toxins measured in shellfish were yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2 (PTX- 2), and azaspiracid-2; the last two toxins observed in Russian water for the first time.
ABSTRACT The presence of the lipophilic toxins okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1, pectenotoxin-2, and yessotoxin (YTX) in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected between March 2009 and May 2010 was analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the mouse bioassay.
KEY WORDS: marine toxins, shellfish toxicity, yessotoxin, YTX, 45-hydroxy yessotoxin, carboxy yessotoxin, keto yessotoxin, Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax grindleyi, blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, LC-MS/MS, metabolism
Yessotoxin binds to voltage-gated calcium/sodium channels, also resulting in increased cytosolic [Ca.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1, and other lipophilic toxins such as pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and yessotoxin were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Shellfish flesh samples are tested for three groups of algal toxins toxin for which maximum permitted levels are set by the EU legislation - amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins (ASP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins (LTs) which include diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (DSP), pectenotoxins, yessotoxins and azaspiracids.
The first section discusses both general mechanisms acting on voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels and cholinergic receptors and specific mechanisms of palytoxin, maitotoxin, domoic acid, azaspiracids, and yessotoxins.
Yessotoxins production during the culture of Protoceratium reticulatum strains isolated from Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain).
Phycotoxins are covered in alphabetical order and include: azaspiracids, brevetoxins, domoic acid, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxins.