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Related to wound contracture: granulation tissue, re-epithelialization, wound contraction
wound contracturewound size reduction during proliferative phase of wound healing (Table 1) due to action of fibroblast activity
|Active phase||Wound dimensions increase (undermined wound edges)|
Formation of slough
Periwound oedema and induration of edges
|Dissolution and degradation of devitalized tissue ± infection|
Macrophage and enzyme activity
Accumulation of degraded tissue and dead macrophages
Chronic, non-resolving inflammation ± collagen deposition
|Proliferative phase||Wound begins to infill (wound dimensions reduce)|
Epithelialization (saucerization) of margins
|Formation of granulation tissue|
Recruitment of fibroblasts; collagen formation
Epidermal cells at margins mitose and spread out to begin to close wound
|Maturation phase||Wound contraction|
|Myofibrils within fibroblasts contract|
Epithelialization is complete
Devascularization of fibrotic tissue that forms scar
wound contracturescar tissue contraction, especially marked after burn injury
a bodily injury caused by physical means, with disruption of the normal continuity of structures.
one in which the skin is unbroken.
the restoration of integrity to injured tissues by replacement of dead tissue with viable tissue. The process starts immediately after an injury and may continue for months or years, and is essentially the same for all types of wounds. Variations in wound healing are the result of differences in location, severity of the wound, and the extent of injury to the tissues. Other factors affecting wound healing are the age, nutritional status and general state of health of the animal and its body reserves and resources for the regeneration of tissue.
In healing by first intention (primary union), restoration of tissue continuity occurs directly, without granulation; in healing by second intention (secondary union), wound repair following tissue loss (as in ulceration or an open wound), is accomplished by closure of the wound with granulation tissue. This tissue is formed by proliferation of fibroblasts and extensive capillary budding at the outer edges and base of the wound cavity. Healing by third intention (delayed primary closure) occurs when a wound is initially too contaminated to close and is closed surgically 4 or 5 days after the injury.
The insertion of drains can facilitate healing by providing an outlet for removing accumulations of serosanguineous fluid and purulent material, and obliterating dead space.
wound healing agents
topical agents which stimulate healing; includes preparations containing zinc, trypsin, neomycin, dyes and iodine.
one caused by a cutting instrument.
one in which the tissues are torn.
failure to heal despite appropriate treatment being given.
one that communicates directly with the atmosphere.
one caused by a sharp, usually slender object, which passes through the skin into the underlying tissues.
a penetrating wound which extends into a viscus or bodily cavity.
chronic, nonhealing wound in which there is granulation tissue but the overlying skin does not adhere. Seen most commonly in the axillae or groin of cats.
a penetrating wound of the chest through which air is drawn in and out.
one deliberately produced during a surgical procedure, e.g. the original incision.
an oblique, glancing wound which results in one edge being undercut.