The concluding chapter in the introductory part addresses key issues in CBPR that include community being the unit of identity, egalitarian partnership, collaborative capacity building, balance between research and action, addressing the multi- level web of causation
, and adherence to a cyclical and long process.
These paradigmatic eras include: (a) the Sanitary Movement, with its paradigm of the miasma theory of disease; (b) the Infectious Disease Era with its paradigm of the germ theory of disease; (c) the Chronic Disease Era, with its paradigms of the Black Box, multifactorial causation, Host-Agent-Environment interactions, the Web of Causation, and Risk Factor epidemiology; and (d) the current Microlevel Epidemiology, with its paradigm of biophysical reductionism, in which theories of disease causation are focused on genetic, hormonal, viral and microbial etiologies (Kreiger, 1994,1999; Pearce, 1996; Susser & Susser, 1996a, 1996b).
In addition to multifactorial causation, dominant paradigms of this era were (a) the Black Box, (b) Host-Agent-Environment interactions, (c) the Web of Causation, and (d) Risk Factor epidemiology.
Thus, in 1960, McMahon, Pugh, and Ipsen (as cited in Krieger, 1994) introduced the idea of the Web of Causation.