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1. stimulation, excitement, or impaired judgment caused by a chemical substance, or as if by one.
2. substance intoxication, especially that due to ingestion of alcohol (see discussion at alcoholism). Alcohol intoxication is defined legally according to a person's blood alcohol level; the definition is 0.10 per cent or more in most states in the U.S. and 0.8 per cent or more in Canada.
alcohol idiosyncratic intoxication a term previously used for marked behavioral change, usually belligerence, produced by ingestion of small amounts of alcohol that would not cause intoxication in most persons. It is now felt that there is no evidence for a distinction between this condition and any other form of alcohol intoxication.
caffeine intoxication caffeinism (def. 2).
cannabis intoxication physiological and psychological symptoms following the smoking of marijuana or hashish, including euphoria, preoccupation with auditory and visual stimuli, and apathy. Intoxication occurs almost immediately after smoking and peaks within 30 minutes.
pathological intoxication alcohol idiosyncratic i.
substance intoxication a type of substance-induced disorder, consisting of reversible, substance-specific, maladaptive behavioral or psychological changes directly resulting from the physiologic effects on the central nervous system of recent ingestion of or exposure to a drug of abuse, medication, or toxin. Specific cases are named on the basis of etiology, e.g., alcohol intoxication.
water intoxication a condition resulting from undue retention of water with decrease in sodium concentration, marked by lethargy, nausea, vomiting, and mild mental aberrations; in severe cases there may be convulsions and coma.
a metabolic encephalopathy resulting from severe overhydration.
an increase in the volume of free water in the body, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia. Common causes are excessive ingestion of water, increased infusions of hypotonic IV solutions, or excess secretions of antidiuretic hormone. Clinical manifestations are abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and dizziness. It can potentially lead to convulsions and coma. See also syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
water intoxicationHyperhydration due to excess ingestion of water, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia; WI is most common in Pts with psychiatric or neurologic disease, and may be accompanied by impaired renal fluid excretion and ↑ secretion of ADH, altered mental status, irritability, seizures, somnolence, hypothermia, edema; it is common in infants living in poverty, whose parents 'stretch' powdered formula by adding water Sports medicine Cerebral hyponatremia, hyponatremic encephalopathy A specific form of WI affecting the senses, which occurs in otherwise healthy long-distance runners–eg, ultramarathoners. See Marathon.
wa·ter in·tox·i·ca·tion(waw'tĕr in-toks'i-kā'shŭn)
Nonphysiologic state caused by excessive water intake during exercise resulting in headache, nausea, and cramping. In severe cases, it may cause seizures and even death.
water intoxicationThe effect of excessive water retention in the brain in the course of any disorder causing general OEDEMA. The condition features headache, dizziness, confusion, nausea and sometimes seizures and coma. Treatment is the correction of the cause and measures to withdraw water from the brain into the blood.
A potentially life-threatening condition caused by drinking too much water, which leads to hyponatremia and may result in seizures, coma, and death.
Mentioned in: Electrolyte Supplements
1. a clear, colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid, H2O.
2. an aqueous solution of a medicinal substance.
a sheet with water-filled channels through which heated water is circulated by an external pump. This is placed beneath an anesthetized patient to maintain body temperature during surgery and avoid hypothermia.
see total body water.
body water loss
is principally through the urine, supplemented by sweating, fecal water and evaporation in expired air.
recorded as toxic due to tunicamycin in mixture produced probably by fungi.
the animals are cut off from any source of water. May be by accident or neglect.
water deprivation syndrome
the animals become frenzied and begin to destroy their surroundings in an attempt to find water. There is abdominal gauntness, sunken eyes and weakness, and abortion may occur later.
water deprivation test
a test of the concentrating ability of renal tubules and their responsiveness to endogenous antidiuretic hormone. Urine specific gravity and/or osmolality is measured before water is withheld, at intervals during, and after an average time period of 12 to 24 hours. The normal animal should produce urine that is progressively more concentrated, with an osmolality becoming greater than that of the plasma.
water that has been purified by distillation.
a primitive method of euthanasia, especially for unwanted, newborn animals.
the concentration of individual electrolytes and of groups of, e.g. monovalent electrolytes, in serum, in tissue fluids and in intracellular fluid is critical to normal bodily function and is maintained by variation in the renal excretory rate of each electrolyte.
conservation of body water during times of deprivation or excessive loss due to diarrhea or heavy sweating is effected by an increase in the concentration of the urine by the renal tubules.
prolonged head-out water immersion has been used in the treatment of skeletal injuries in horses because of the weightlessness induced but there are serious implications of osteoporosis.
can occur if very thirsty animals, on limited salt intake, are allowed unlimited access to water. There is tremor, incoordination and convulsions and there may be polioencephalomalacia. Hemoglobinuria and hypothermia may also occur.
water loading test
measures the concentrating power of the kidney by combining the water deprivation and ADH tests.
a substance injected into the body that will diffuse through all of the body water compartments. The reduction in its concentration after injection can be used as a measure of body water. Tritiated water is used for the purpose.
water marker decay curve
the curve of declining concentration of a water marker in intravascular fluid.
administration of medication in drinking water is used particularly in birds and also in swine.
water provocative test
measurement of intraocular pressure before and after the administration of a large volume of water by stomach tube. A marked increase occurs in glaucomatous eyes.
see sodium chloride.
water vapor partial pressure
in humans is the same in venous and arterial blood, in pulmonary alveolar air and in tissues; it is assumed that the same generalization applies to animals.