Volcano

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An opening or rupture in the earth’s surface through which lava, hot gases, and fragments of rock erupt. The effect of volcanic eruptions on humans is both direct—lava flow, tidal waves, mud slides—and indirect—releasing ash that affects the lungs or weather
References in periodicals archive ?
During the extensive vulcanism in the Paleocene and Eocene periods of the early Tertiary Era in ancestral California, the surface was covered by ash, volcanic mud, and lava flows.
As these scientists see it, this advantage offsets what is probably the site's principal draw-back--the fact that over geologic time the NTS and the larger Great Basin region have been racked by earthquakes and vulcanism.
GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE VOLCANIC DOME IN THE MUNICIPIO OF IZA, DEPARTAMENTO OF BOYACA; INTERPRETATION GEODINAMIC AND COMPARISON WITH THE NEOGENO VULCANISM OF THE ORIENTAL CORDILLERA
2004); the deterioration of atmospheric conditions leading to a drop in oxygen levels (Wignall and Hallam, 1992; Wignall and Twitchett, 1996; Weidlich et al, 2003; Foster and Afonin, 2005); a decrease in primary biological productivity (Twitchett, 2001); sea-level changes (Hallam and Wignall, 1999); and vulcanism (Wignall, 2001; Mundil et al.
Vulcanism and subsequent erosion and deposition have created a landscape of great complexity.
All the orebodies are hydrothermal, epigenetic deposits related to Tertiary vulcanism.