Volcano

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An opening or rupture in the earth’s surface through which lava, hot gases, and fragments of rock erupt. The effect of volcanic eruptions on humans is both direct—lava flow, tidal waves, mud slides—and indirect—releasing ash that affects the lungs or weather
References in periodicals archive ?
assess the effects of vulcanism in Iceland on farming in Scotland.
Preliminary analysis of stone excavated in 1996 indicates that the chert may all be chalcedony derived from coral limestones and possibly tuff silicified by rhyolitic vulcanism (Peter Sheppard pers.
Even for relatively local volcanoes, the record in the ice cores may be a complex reflection of proximity of source, scale and type of eruption, other contemporary vulcanism, and contemporary meteorological conditions.