Ayurvedic pharmacodynamic properties for Rasa are tikta (bitter) and kashaya (astringent); for Guna are laghu and snigdha (light and oily); for Virya
it is considered ushna (hot); and for Vipaka it is madhura (sweet).
Besides awkward syntax like this, there are occasional lapses of diction, for example when he translates the Vedic term virya
as 'puissance' (p.
The loss of virya
through sexual acts or imagery (including masturbation and nocturnal emission) is considered harmful both physically and spiritually.
The "formalist" scholarship on Indian aesthetics, derided passim by Ali, has frequently pointed to the supra-societal references of these works of art--as essays on profound cultural values, such as the conflict between dharma (read 'caste duty') and virya
(read 'worldly success'), that resonate throughout the Indian cultural world.
As such, the reader's high expectations are to some extent disappointed, for the matters thus dealt with do not seem to depart very far from standard accounts--whether historical (placing Bharavi in his proper context of patronage, the sixth-century Deccan of rival Saiva kingdoms) or poetical (placing Bharavi's poem in the context of the rasa theory, as do his commentators, and which it exemplifies quite well: santa in the service of virya
, of which santa may well be already a form).
flows into fruit, plants, animals, metals, as well as parisrut, raw liquor, and sura.
Whereas in the first poem the dominant mood had been erotic desire, srngara rasa, now heroism, virya rasa, is the main theme.
According to Indian classifications the dominant mood of the second poem is virya rasa (heroism), which clearly has masculine overtones.
Folio 114: verses 6-9 on virya 'zeal', plus verse  on generosity (dana).
Among the verses preserved in these fragments, only the sequence on virya on folio 114 has been identified by the editor in a previously known text, and this no less renowned a work than Asvaghosa's Saundarananda-mahakavya (16.
calls "essential powers," which are secondary metaphysical forces, such as brahmavarcasa and tejas associated with brahmanas; virya
, ojas, and bala associated with ksatriyas; and pusti, urj, and anna associated with vaisyas.
His "Reflections on the basic concepts of Indian pharmacology" is an authoritative analysis of rasa (taste), vipaka (post-digestive taste), virya
(potency) and prabhava (specific action) in the classical compendia and their medieval commentaries.