variola major

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Related to variola major: variola minor, Variola vera


An acute eruptive contagious disease caused by a poxvirus (Orthopoxvirus, a member of the family Poxviridae) and marked at the onset by chills, high fever, backache, and headache. In 2-5 days these constitutional symptoms subside and an eruption appears as papules, which become umbilicated vesicles, develop into pustules, dry, and form scabs that, on falling off, leave a permanent marking of the skin (pock marks). The average incubation period is 8-14 days. As a result of increasingly aggressive vaccination programs carried out over a period of about 200 years, smallpox is now extinct.
Synonym(s): variola major, variola
[E. small pocks, or pustules]

Smallpox was a universally dreaded scourge for more than 3 millennia, with case fatality rates sometimes exceeding 20%. In many ways a unique disease, it had no nonhuman reservoir species and no asymptomatic human carriers. First subjected to some control by variolation in the 10th century in India and China, it was gradually suppressed in the industrialized world after Edward Jenners 1776 landmark demonstration that infection with the harmless cowpox (vaccinia) virus renders humans immune to the smallpox virus. The last case diagnosed in the U.S. occurred in 1949. A global eradication program was initiated by the World Health Organization in 1966, and the last naturally occurring case of the disease was reported in Somalia in 1977. Routine vaccination against smallpox, discontinued in the 1970s, has been resumed for military and health care personnel and others who would be at high risk if smallpox virus should be used as a weapon of biologic warfare or bioterrorism.

variola, variola major

See smallpox.

va·ri·o·la ma·jor

(var-ī'ō-lă mā'jŏr)
Severe form of smallpox.

variola major

Smallpox with its full-blown, classic symptoms.
Synonym: variola vera
See also: variola
References in periodicals archive ?
It would appear to be an unrewarding exercise to compare the inactivation of the virulence of Variola minor and that of Variola major, especially telescoping the results of tests carried out in the 1970s, to conclude that these are relevant to the infectivity of a strain of the smallpox virus in the late 1700s.
The mortality rate of smallpox variola major infection is approximately 30 percent.
Suspicion of a possible case or cases of smallpox due to variola major would arise from the presence of an acute febrile illness occurring prior to the appearance of a vesicular rash.
Orthopox viruses are antigenetically closely related vertebrate viruses, including variola major virus (VAR), (1) monkeypox virus (MPV), camelpox virus (CML), vaccinia virus (VAC), cowpox virus (CPV), and six other species not pathogenic for humans.
aureus from patient Coxiella burnetii Serum, blood, tissue, (Q fever) cell culture fluid Equine encephalitis Blood, CSF, respiratory, serum viruses; alphaviruses Variola major Tissue, vesicles (pox), blood, serum (Smallpox virus) Hemorrhagic fever viruses Blood, respiratory, urine, body (incl.
Fenn shows how these and other differences helped ensure trouble when the outbreak of war led large numbers of men to travel, For variola major, the virus that causes smallpox, to succeed, it has to travel, because the virus has no animal vector.
It is caused by the variola virus and comes in two strains: the less severe variola minor and the more deadly variola major
Outbreaks of variola major occurred periodically in the first quarter of the 1900s and then ceased abruptly in 1929.
After the World Health Organization (WHO) declared smallpox eradicated in 1980, several problems remained concerning the disease and its causative virus, variola major virus.
A variola e uma doenca viral exantematica causada pelo Poxvirus variolae, determinando, basicamente, duas formas distintas: variola major e variola minor.
a) Organism/Agent Disease caused or common Biothreat (b) name level Variola major Small pox A B.
The patient infected with variola major presents with malaise, fevers, rigors, vomiting, headache, and backache.