vancomycin


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vancomycin

 [van″ko-mi´sin]
an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces orientalis, highly effective against gram-positive bacteria, especially against staphylococci; it is used as the hydrochloride salt. It is administered intravenously in the treatment of severe staphylococcal infections resistant to other antibiotics and is administered orally in the treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis and antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous enterocolitis caused by Clostridium difficile. Toxic effects may be severe and include damage to the eighth cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve and renal disorders.

van·co·my·cin

(van'kō-mī'sin),
An antibiotic isolated from cultures of Nocardia orientalis, bactericidal against gram-positive organisms; available as the hydrochloride.

vancomycin

/van·co·my·cin/ (van″ko-mi´sin) an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces orientalis, highly effective against gram-positive bacteria, especially against staphylococci; used as the hydrochloride salt.

vancomycin

(văng′kə-mī′sĭn, văn′kə-)
n.
An antibiotic, C66H75Cl2N9O24, obtained from the actinomycete Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly Streptomyces orientalis), used usually in the form of its hydrochloride to treat infections with staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria.

vancomycin

[van′kōmī′sin]
an antibiotic.
indications It is prescribed in the treatment of infections, particularly staphylococcal infections resistant to other antibiotics and antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile.
contraindications Concomitant administration of neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, or ototoxic drugs or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are anaphylaxis, dizziness, and tinnitus.

vancomycin

A glycopeptide antibiotic effective against coccal bacteria, especially in recalcitrant staphylococcal infections–eg, MRSA, unresponsive to penicillins or cephalosporins Adverse effects Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity

van·co·my·cin

(van'kō-mī'sin)
An antibiotic isolated from cultures of Nocardia orientalis, bactericidal against gram-positive organisms; available as the hydrochloride.

vancomycin

An antibiotic drug effective against many GRAM POSITIVE bacteria. It is toxic and its use is limited to infections that fail to respond to the common antibiotics. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Vancocin.

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.

van·co·my·cin

(van'kō-mī'sin)
Antibiotic isolated from cultures of Nocardia orientalis, bactericidal against gram-positive organisms.

vancomycin

a narrow-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces orientalis, highly effective against gram-positive bacteria; it is commonly reserved for use against serious infections caused by penicillinase-resistant Staphylococci. The toxic effects are quite severe and include damage to the eighth cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve and renal disorders.

vancomycin resistant enterococcus
a group of multi-drug resistant bacteria associated with high mortality in humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, this study aimed to assess the drug resistance against vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, rifampicin, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and teicoplanin so as to guide for alternative therapeutic options to the physicians for the empirical as well as targeted use.
RMS can be prevented by administering the vancomycin at rates [less than or equal to]10 mg/min.
Figure 1 shows Vancomycin intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus according to gender, inpatient/outpatient department and age groups.
17] found, that the restriction of vancomycin use, cannot lead to reducing the rate of colonization with VRE in a hospital where VRE were endemic.
Previously the team showed it was possible to add two modifications to Vancomycin to make it even more potent.
This is the largest study to date to compare vancomycin and metronidazole in a real-world setting and one of the few studies focused on downstream outcomes of CDI," they reported.
Newborns who were admitted to the NPCU, diagnosed with Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI), and treated with vancomycin for the first episode of late-onset sepsis (defined as sepsis after 48 h of age), were included in this study if they had vancomycin level tested as recommended.
Recent administration of vancomycin, use of multiple antibiotics, prolonged hospital stay and immunosuppression are all recognized as risk factors for the development of vancomycin resistance in the enterococci (Cetinkaya et al.
Susceptibility to vancomycin was determined in all isolates with Etest (bioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) and broth microdilution (Probac do Brasil, Sao Paulo, Brasil).
Vancomycin agar screen plates were prepared In-house by addition of 6 mg/L vancomycin to brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (Merck, Germany).
Chung and his associates observed a shift in oral vancomycin prescribing practices from a higher to a lower dosing regimen.
Explain the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring using vancomycin serum concentrations

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