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a smear of debris from the vaginal lumen of mammals, used to determine the stage of their reproductive cycle. It is most useful in subprimate mammals having short estrous cycles; nucleated epithelial cells and leukocytes prevail in the smear during diestrus and proestrus, and cornified cells during estrus.
pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath.
see annulus vaginalis.
manifested by imperforate hymen or residual strands of hymen. See imperforate hymen.
use of a suction apparatus to collect a sample of vaginal fluid for culture, cytological or immunological examination.
collection of a sample of mucosa by a pinch biopsy instrument for histopathological examination.
inherited defect in Jersey cows combined with anal constriction, sometimes with rectovaginal fistula.
vaginal cyclic changes
see vaginal cytology (below).
the urinary bladder is lying on the floor of the vagina; the displacement has been via the urethra by eversion or via a tear in the floor of the vagina.
cyclic changes in the exfoliated epithelial cells of the vaginal mucosa occurring synchronously with the stages of the estrous cycle; collection of samples by the use of a swab and laboratory examination of a smear is a useful aid in determining the most appropriate time to mate a bitch.
see vaginal fornix.
vaginal hypoplasia segmental
see müllerian duct aplasia.
see vaginitis (1).
include papilloma, sarcoma, myxofibroma.
an outpocketing of the peritoneum into the gubernaculum at the site of the future inguinal canal in the male fetus; becomes the tunica vagina of the adult.
see vaginal prolapse.
see bearing retainer.
see annulus vaginalis.
occurs during mating, dystocia, insemination, or by sadistic or malicious trauma. Results in peritonitis or cellulitis of the pelvic fascia.
examination of the cells in a smear is used as an aid in predicting the time of ovulation, which may be useful in selecting the optimal date for breeding.
cicatricial contraction after traumatic injury.
the double peritoneal fold which encloses the spermatic cord and the testis; made up of a visceral layer which is adherent to the testis and cord, and a parietal layer which lines the scrotum and the inguinal canal.
entrance to the vagina enclosed between the lips of the vulva, the labia minor. Connects the vagina at the external urethral orifice to the external genital opening; develops from the embryonic urogenital sinus.
irrigation of the vagina with sterile saline can be used to recover cells, which are stained and examined microscopically to monitor estrus.