Although the Stanford research acknowledged the lack of published evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods, the researchers did however cite higher levels of total beneficial phenols in organic produce, omega 3 fatty acids in organic milk and chicken and vaccenic acid
in organic chicken.
Pointing out that published literature lacks broad evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods, the Stanford University researchers, however, did cite higher levels of total beneficial phenols in organic produce, omega-3 fatty acids in organic milk and chicken, and vaccenic acid
in organic chicken.
Milk fat contains a number of micronutrients [conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vaccenic acid
, sphingolipids, butyric acid, [beta]-carotene, etc.
It is important to note that TFAs can occur naturally in meat, but normally as trans vaccenic acid
or trans-11 18:1 fatty acids that are converted naturally to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).
The main natural trans-fatty acid in red meat is trans 11, 18:1, called vaccenic acid
This is consistent with the carnivorous feeding habits of the studied nudibranchs because vaccenic acid
is found in marine bacteria (Brown et al.
Double Common name #C Bonds Scientific name Palmitic Acid 16 0 hexadecanoic acid Palmitoleic Acid 16 1 9-hexadecenoic acid Stearic Acid 18 0 octadecanoic acid Oleic Acid 18 1 9-octadecenoic acid Vaccenic Acid
18 1 11-octadecenoic acid Linoleic Acid 18 2 9,12-octadecadienoic acid Alpha-Linolenic 18 3 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid Acid (ALA) Gamma-Linolenic 18 3 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid Acid (GLA) Arachidic Acid 20 0 eicosanoic acid Gadoleic Acid 20 1 9-eicosenoic acid Arachidonic Acid (AA) 20 4 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid EPA 20 5 5,8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid Behenic acid 22 0 docosanoic acid Erucic acid 22 1 13-docosenoic acid DHA 22 6 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid Lignoceric acid 24 0 tetracosanoic acid Table II.
Table 5 -- unsaturated and saturated fatty acids Unsaturated Saturated Crotonic acid Butyric acid Oleic acid Caproic acid Vaccenic acid
Caprylic acid Linoleic acid Capric acid Linolenic acid Lauric acid Erucid acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid
Diets rich in forage favor the growth of fibrolytic microorganisms that are principally responsible for the high hydrogenation activity in the rumen and consequently of CLA and vaccenic acid
(C18:1 trans-11, precursor of CLA in tissue) production (Aurousseau et al.
CDC studied four major TFAs to provide a reasonable representation of TFAs in blood: elaidic acid, linoelaidic acid, palmitelaidic acid, and vaccenic acid
Probiotic yoghurt (a fermented dairy product) made with milk containing increased CLA and concentrated trans vaccenic acid
(TVA) and which was heat treated at 85[degrees]C for 30 min, did not show any significant reduction in the amount of CLA and TVA .
Non ruminants, such as humans, may be able to produce some isomers of CLA from vaccenic acid
by delta-9-desaturase (2).