In decreasing order, linolenic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), oleic acid (18:1n-9), palmitic acid (16:0), alpha linoleic acid (18:3n-3), vaccenic acid
(18:1n-7), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and myristic acid (14:0) were the most abundant fatty acids detected.
Fatty acid composition of ruminal bacteria and protozoa, with emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid, vaccenic acid
, and odd-chain and branched-chain fatty acids.
Supplementation of 9% DDGS in pig diet did not affect the levels of saturated fatty acids including lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acids including vaccenic acid
(C18:1-t11) and linoleic acid (C18:2).
Flavor and stability of pasteurized milk with elevated levels of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid
McIntosh FM, Shingfield KJ, Devillard E, Russell WR, Wallace RJ (2009) Mechanism of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid
formation in human faecal suspensions and pure cultures of intestinal bacteria.
These natural TFA include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid
Although the Stanford research acknowledged the lack of published evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods, the researchers did however cite higher levels of total beneficial phenols in organic produce, omega 3 fatty acids in organic milk and chicken and vaccenic acid
in organic chicken.
Milk fat contains a number of micronutrients [conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vaccenic acid
, sphingolipids, butyric acid, [beta]-carotene, etc.
The bacterial biomarkers, namely 15:0 ISO, 15:0 ANTEISO, 17:0 ISO, 17:0 ANTEISO and Vaccenic acid
(18:1 n-7) were abundantly present in prawns and fish.
Since we have shown that the adult Fulani men and women who inhabit northern Nigeria derive nearly 30% of their dietary calories from cow's milk, butter oil, and dairy products derived there from (4,5) and since both milk and butter oil from the cows of the Fulani contain relatively large amounts of TFAs, most of which is vaccenic acid
(18:1-t11) (7,8), we expected to find at least moderate amounts of vaccenic acid
in the phospholipid fraction of the sera of these pastoralists.
It is important to note that TFAs can occur naturally in meat, but normally as trans vaccenic acid
or trans-11 18:1 fatty acids that are converted naturally to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).
The main natural trans-fatty acid in red meat is trans 11, 18:1, called vaccenic acid