urine


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urine

 [u´rin]
the fluid containing water and waste products that is secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and discharged by way of the urethra.
Contents of the Urine. Several different types of waste products are eliminated in urine (for example, urea, uric acid, ammonia, and creatinine); none are useful in the blood. The largest component of urine by weight (apart from water) is urea, which is derived from the breakdown of dietary proteins and amino acids in the diet and those of the body itself. Its amount varies greatly from person to person, however, depending on the amount of protein in the diet. Besides waste materials, urine also contains surpluses of products necessary for bodily functioning, such as water, sodium chloride, and other substances. Thus in a typical specimen of urine there will be sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and sulfate.



The color of urine is due to the presence of the yellow pigment urochrome. Individual ingredients of urine are not usually visible, but when the urine is alkaline some of the ingredients may form sediments of phosphates and urates. The urine may also become cloudy from the presence of mucus. Persistent cloudiness may indicate the presence of pus or blood. Common causes of variations in the color of urine are summarized in the accompanying table.
fractional urine examination of a urine specimen with separate examination for different solutes, generally meaning that the specimen is tested for the presence of glucose and acetone.
midstream urine clean-catch specimen.
residual urine urine remaining in the bladder after urination; seen in bladder outlet obstruction and disorders of deficient detrusor contractility.

u·rine

(yūr'in),
The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.
[L. urina; G. ouron]

urine

(u´rin) the fluid excreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and discharged through the urethra.
residual urine  urine remaining in the bladder after urination.

urine

(yo͝or′ĭn)
n.
The waste product secreted by the kidneys that in mammals is a yellow to amber-colored, slightly acidic fluid discharged from the body through the urethra.

urine

[yoo͡r′in]
Etymology: Gk ouron
the fluid secreted by the kidneys, transported by the ureters, stored in the bladder, and voided through the urethra. Normal urine is clear, straw-colored, and slightly acid; has the odor of urea; and has a specific gravity between 1.003 and 1.035. Its normal constituents include water, urea, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, phosphates, uric acid, organic salts, and the pigment urobilin. Abnormal constituents indicative of disease include ketone bodies, protein, bacteria, blood, glucose, pus, and certain crystals. See also bacteriuria, glycosuria, hematuria, ketoaciduria, proteinuria. urinary, adj.
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Urine formation

u·rine

(yūr'in)
The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.
[L. urina; G. ouron]

urine

(ur'in) [Fr. urine, fr L. urina, urine]
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URINE: red blood cells and one white blood cell (×400)
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URINE: Commercial testing kits contain a reagent for a specific substance. A chemical reaction with the urine causes a color change that you interpret using a color chart
The fluid and dissolved solutes (including salts and nitrogen-containing waste products) that are eliminated from the body by the kidneys. See: tables

Composition

Urine consists of approx. 95% water and 5% solids. Solids amount to 30 to 70 g/L and include the following (values are in grams per 24 hr unless otherwise noted): Organic substances: urea (10 to 30), uric acid (0.8 to 1.0), creatine (10 to 40 mg/24 hr in men and 10 to 270 mg/24 hr in women), creatinine (15 to 25 mg/kg of body weight per day), ammonia (0.5 to 1.3). Inorganic substances: chlorides (110 to 250 nmol/L depending on chloride intake), calcium (0.1 to 0.2), magnesium (3 to 5 nmol/24 hr), phosphorus (0.4 to 1.3). Osmolarity: 0.1 to 2.5 mOsm/L.

In addition to the foregoing, many other substances may be present depending on the diet and state of health of the individual. Among component substances indicating pathological states are abnormal amounts of albumin, glucose, ketone bodies, blood, pus, casts, and bacteria. See: illustration

block urine

Fractional urine.

double-voided urine

A urine sample voided within 30 min after the patient has emptied the bladder.

fractional urine

A collection of urine taken during a few specified hours or from a specified quantity rather than from the entire amount voided during a day.
Synonym: block urine

residual urine

Urine left in the bladder after urination, an abnormal occurrence that may accompany enlargement of the prostate or the use of drugs, e.g., antihistamines or anticholinergics, that prevent complete voiding of urine.
Synonym: postvoid residual
QUANTITY
NormalAbnormalSignificance
1000–3000 ml/dayVaries with fluid intake, food consumed, exercise, temperature, kidney function
High (polyuria > 3000 ml/day)Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, water intoxication, chronic nephritis, diuretic use
Low (oliguria)Dehydration, hemorrhage, diarrhea, vomiting, urinary obstruction, or many intrinsic kidney diseases
None (anuria)Same as oliguria
COLOR
NormalAbnormalSignificance
Yellow to amberDepends on concentration of urochrome pigment
PaleDilute urine, diuretic effect
MilkyFat globules, pus, crystals
RedDrugs, blood or muscle pigments
GreenBile pigment (jaundiced patient)
Brown-blackToxins, hemorrhage, drugs, metabolites
HEMATURIA (blood in urine)
NormalAbnormalSignificance
0–2 RBC/high-powered field (hpf)Normal (physiological) filtration
3 or more RBCs/hpfExtrarenal: urinary tract infections, cancers, or stones. Renal: infections, trauma, malignancies, glomerulopathies, polycystic kidneys
PYURIA (leukocytes in urine)
NormalAbnormalSignificance
0–9 leukocytes per hpf
10 or more leukocytes/hpfUrinary tract infection, urethritis, vaginitis, urethral syndrome, pyelonephritis, and others
PROTEINURIA
NormalAbnormalSignificance
10–150 mg/day
30–300 mg/day of albuminIndicative of initial glomerular leakage in diabetes mellitus or hypertension (microalbuminuria)
> 300 mg/dayMacroalbuminuria. Indicative of progressive kidney failure. Injury to glomeruli or tubulointerstitium of kidney.
> 3500 mg/dayNephrotic range proteinuria. Evaluation may include kidney biopsy.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
NormalAbnormalSignificance
1.010–1.025Varies with hydration
1.010 (Low)Excessive fluid intake, impaired kidney concentrating ability
> 1.025 (High)Dehydration, hemorrhage, salt-wasting, diabetes mellitus, and others
ACIDITY
NormalAbnormalSignificance
Acid (slight)Diet of acid-forming foods (meats, eggs, prunes, wheat) overbalances the base-forming foods (vegetables and fruits)
High acidityAcidosis, diabetes mellitus, many pathological disorders (fevers, starvation)
AlkalineVegetarian diet changes urea into ammonium carbonate; infection or ingestion of alkaline compounds
AnuriaComplete (or nearly complete) absence of urination
DiversionDrainage of urine through a surgically constructed passage (e.g., a ureterostomy or ileal conduit)
DysuriaPainful or difficult urination (e.g., in urethritis, urethral stricture, urinary tract infection, prostatic hyperplasia, or bladder atony)
EnuresisInvoluntary discharge of urine, esp. by children at night (bedwetting)
IncontinenceLoss of control over urination from any cause (e.g., from involuntary relaxation of urinary sphincter muscles or overflow from a full or paralyzed bladder)
NocturiaExcessive urination at night
OliguriaDecreased urinary output (usually less than 500 ml/day), often associated with dehydration, shock, hemorrhage, acute renal failure, or other conditions in which renal perfusion or renal output are impaired
PolyuriaIncreased urinary output (usually more than 3000 ml/day), such as occurs in diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and diuresis

urine

The fluid excretion of the kidneys, a solution in water of organic and inorganic substances, most of which are waste products of METABOLISM. Normal urine is clear, of varying colour, of specific gravity between 1.017 and 1.020 and slightly acid. It contains UREA, URIC ACID, creatinine, ammonia, sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphates and sulphates.

urine

an aqueous solution of organic and inorganic substances, that is the waste product of METABOLISM. In mammals, elasmobranch fishes, amphibia, tortoises and turtles, nitrogen is excreted in the form of UREA which in humans forms 2% of the urine on average.

Urine

The fluid excreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, then discharged from the body through the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (urethra).
Mentioned in: Bed-Wetting

urine

solution produced/excreted by kidney

u·rine

(yūr'in)
The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.
[L. urina; G. ouron]

urine (yoor´in),

n the fluid excreted by the kidneys. Normal urine is clear, straw-colored, and slightly acidic, and has the characteristic odor of urea.

urine

the fluid containing water and waste products which are secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and discharged by way of the urethra. See also urinary.

urine albumin
urine alkalinization
increasing the pH of urine by the administration of alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate; used to increase the solubility of cystine in the management of cystine urolithiasis in dogs.
blood in urine
urine burn
see urine scald (below).
urine calculi
urine casts
see urinary casts.
urine cells
see urine sediment (below).
urine chromogens
urine concentration test
see water deprivation test.
urine creatine
urine crystals
urine drinking
in farm animals is observed in nutritional deficiency of sodium chloride.
urine flow
the rate of flow may be reduced—oliguria, absent—anuria, or increased—polyuria.
urine flowmetry
measure of urine flow rates.
urine glucose
urine hemoglobin
urine immunoglobulins
may be found in small amounts in normal animals. Increased amounts occur in renal disease due to disruption of glomeruli and defects in tubular reabsorption.
urine indican
urine ketones
urine marking
metastable urine
calcium oxalate crystals are maintained and can enlarge in urine oversaturated with these minerals.
urine methemoglobin
urine myoglobin
urine osmolality
a measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in urine. See also osmolality.
oversaturated urine
calcium and oxalate crystals will spontaneously precipitate, grow and aggregate.
urine peritonitis
caused by the presence of urine in the peritoneal cavity as in rupture of the bladder.
urine pH
the normal range varies with the animal species. Herbivores have a higher pH than carnivores because of differences in the diet. Alterations occur with changes in acid-base balance and infection in the urinary tract.
urine protein
pus in urine
see pyuria.
red urine
residual urine
urine remaining in the bladder after urination; seen in bladder outlet obstruction (as by prostatic hypertrophy) and disorders affecting nerves controlling bladder function.
urine sample collection
midstream collection is standard; for culture the sample should be collected by catheter or suprapubic, percutaneous needle insertion into the bladder.
urine scald
scalding of the perineal area, and sometimes the hindlegs, by urine. It may be the result of urinary incontinence or the animal's inability to assume normal posture when urinating, i.e. paresis or paralysis of the hindlimbs. In rabbits it is caused by poor cage accommodation and frequent wetting of the area with urine. Secondary infection of the dermatitis is common.
urine sediment
a centrifuged deposit suitable for microscopic examination for the presence of cells, casts, bacteria, crystals, etc.
urine specific gravity
see specific gravity.
subcutaneous urine aggregation
urine leaking from a damaged urethra collects in a subcutaneous site.

Patient discussion about urine

Q. protien in urine what are the causes and preventions

A.

Q. How you stop urinating frequently? I don't have any conditions that make me urinate often. I simply drink lots of water... Is there some trick I can employ so that I can still drink lots of water but not have to go to the bathroom so frequently?

A. I only drink water and green tea, Thanks.

Q. Today doctor removed my stunt of kidney. It inflamate while urination.. till How long i will feel like this?

A. You should consult your doctor, since instruments in the kidney and urinary tracts can cause infections (even after removing them), that may cause symptoms like you describe.

More discussions about urine
References in periodicals archive ?
During chelation, the urine creatinine concentration tends to fall below the baseline value.
Despite the group's endorsement of cow urine as a viable cure, health experts are skeptical about its health benefits.
The top 5 cm of the soil was collected, as the majority of soil microbial biomass, and therefore the capacity for urine decomposition, is in this upper layer (Murphy et al.
Dehydration where the kidney has to concentrate the urine to preserve water.
Based upon the patient's history and the microbiology results, a diagnosis of purple urine bag syndrome was made.
The mucus and white blood cells associated with UTIs can turn urine cloudy and cause an unpleasant odor.
Cow urine has properties that are good for the brain, the heart, the respiratory system, spinal cord and bones.
Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that MICs of antibiotics are influenced by the glucose added urine.
Although the nutrient content of urine depends on what someone has eaten, analyses of the urine used in these experiments showed that its nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents were comparable to those of commercial fertilizer.
After successful completion of the round-robin study, several frozen urine samples retained from the original study were sent to Monsanto.
Studies of WNV in birds, dogs, and rodents have shown that the kidney is a site of replication (7-9); moreover, infectious WNV has been recovered from urine samples from experimentally infected hamsters as early as day 1 to day 52 postinfection (9).