a distensible reservoir with muscular walls and a lining mucous membrane that lies in the ventral part of the pelvic cavity or abdomen (especially far forwards in the cat). It receives urine from the kidneys via the ureters and discharges urine to the exterior of the body via the urethra. Urine trickles into the bladder from the kidneys every few seconds, where it remains until voided. There is no anatomical sphincter of circular muscle at the bladder neck, urine retention being maintained by the elastic tissues of the urethra—a physiological sphincter. Voiding occurs when the detrusor muscle contracts forcing the urine out. In the housetrained companion animal urination is resisted even when the bladder is uncomfortably full.
atonic urinary bladder
a condition marked by a dilated, poorly contracting urinary bladder without evidence of a lesion of the central nervous system.
atonic neurogenic urinary bladder
neurogenic bladder caused by destruction of the sensory nerve fibers from the bladder to the spinal cord (lateral spinal tracts), marked by the absence of awareness of bladder filling and of the desire to void. This leads to overdistension of the bladder, and an abnormal amount of residual urine with a tendency toward overflow incontinence. Seen in degenerative and traumatic injury to the spinal cord, especially intervertebral disk herniation, in dogs and cats. Called also retention and overflow incontinence, paralytic bladder and sensory paralytic bladder.
automatic urinary bladder
neurogenic bladder due to complete resection of the spinal cord above the sacral segments, marked by complete loss of micturition reflexes and bladder sensation, violent involuntary voiding, and an abnormal amount of residual urine. Called also reflex neurogenic bladder.
autonomous urinary bladder
neurogenic bladder due to a lesion in the sacral portion of the spinal cord that interrupts the reflex arc that controls the bladder. The lesion may be in the cauda equina, conus medullaris, sacral roots or pelvic nerve. It is marked by loss of normal bladder sensation and reflex activity, inability to initiate urination normally, and stress incontinence.
urinary bladder calculi
can cause cystitis arising from the traumatic injury to the bladder epithelium. The initial stage may be hematuria and greatly increased frequency of urination. Dysuria may also be evident. Secondary bacterial infection is a common sequel. See also urolithiasis
congenital urinary bladder rupture
there is gradually increasing abdominal distention soon after birth in the affected foal, which is almost always a male. Paracentesis reveals free urine in the peritoneal cavity. The tear is usually in the dorsal wall of the bladder.
urinary bladder duplication
observed in dogs; the second bladder originates between the uterus and the urinary tract, or between the urinary tract and the rectum.
urinary bladder ectropion
see urinary bladder eversion (below).
urinary bladder eversion
turning inside out of the bladder; occurs in the mare, usually during labor.
urinary bladder extroversion
failure of development of ventral abdominal wall so that the bladder and pelvic urethra are exposed.
urinary bladder hypertrophy
due usually to long-standing partial obstruction of urinary flow.
urinary bladder inflammation irritable urinary bladder
a state of the bladder marked by increased frequency of contraction with associated desire to urinate.
urinary bladder motility
degree of motor activity of the bladder muscle as determined by the spinal sympathetic nerve supplies.
motor paralytic urinary bladder
neurogenic bladder due to impairment of the motor neurons or nerves controlling the bladder. The acute form is marked by painful distention and inability to initiate micturition; the chronic form is marked by difficulty in initiating micturition, straining, a decrease in the size and force of the stream, interrupted stream, and recurrent infection of the urinary tract.
urinary bladder neck sling
a surgical procedure that increases proximal urethral pressure; used to treat some forms of urinary incontinence.
urinary bladder neoplasia
see urinary bladder tumors (below).
neurogenic urinary bladder
any condition of dysfunction of the urinary bladder caused by a lesion of the central or peripheral nervous system.
urinary bladder papillary hyperplasia
resembles papillomatosis in cattle bladders; may cause obstruction.
urinary bladder papilloma
warts attached to the inner wall of the urinary bladder.
urinary bladder paralysis
is caused by a lesion, usually a space-occupying one or due to trauma, in the lumbosacral region of the cord. In the early stages the bladder remains distended and urine dribbles from it. A good flow of urine can be obtained by firm pressure on the bladder. There may be some return to an emptying function later, but the evacuation is seldom complete. Cystitis is the almost certain outcome.
parturient urinary bladder prolapse
may follow rupture of the floor of the vagina during parturition in the mare; it can protrude from the vulva.
urinary bladder reconstruction
a surgical procedure performed to correct urinary incontinence caused by urethral hypoplasia in female dogs and cats. The caudal bladder is reshaped to form ventral bladder tubal flaps as a cranial extension of the urethra.
reflex neurogenic urinary bladder
urinary bladder retroflexion
seen in male dogs with tenesmus, due usually to prostatic hyperplasia or constipation; resumes normal position after voiding unless retained in a perineal hernia with a kinked urethra.
urinary bladder rupture
failure to relieve an obstruction of the urethra may result in distention of the bladder to the point that its circulation is impaired and rupture of the organ follows. The pain of distention disappears, to be followed by a gradual distention of the abdomen, and somnolence and depression of developing uremia. In dogs and cats, trauma is also a common cause. See also urethral
sensory paralytic urinary bladder
atonic neurogenic bladder.
urinary bladder torsion
a rare cause of complete anuria, bladder distention and eventual rupture.
urinary bladder trigone
area of the bladder wall defined by imaginary lines joining the urethral orifice with the orifices of the ureters.
urinary bladder tumors
rare in food animals except in cattle grazing bracken (see also enzootic
hematuria). In dogs and cats they are usually carcinomas, or rarely adenomas, papillomas, leiomyomas or fibromas. Botryoid rhabdomyosarcomas characteristically occur in young St. Bernards and may arise from mesenchymal cells.
urinary bladder-vaginal prolapse
occurs occasionally in the cow as a complication of vaginal prolapse. The bladder is retrodeviated and the urethra kinked so that urine flow is obstructed.
urinary bladder warts
see urinary bladder papilloma (above).
Patient discussion about urinary bladder
Q. What is involved in Gall Bladder surgery?
A. If you refer to removal of the gal bladder due to stones, then it may be performed either in an open approach (using an arch-like incision in your right upper abdomen) or in a laparoscopic approach (using only three small incisions to insert devices into your abdomen). The operation itself is not long and not associated with significant problems after it.
Q. How to prevent getting a bladder infection? I am worried about getting another bladder infection like I just had now. I am during my second trimester. How can I avoid getting it again?
A. drink more cranberry juice,its 100% natural, and wont harm the baby in anyway.
Q. can a bladder infection affect male's ability to have sex?
A. I haven't heard about such an association However, this is only general statement, so if you have any concerns you may want to consult a doctor.More discussions about urinary bladder
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