Motion at the fracture site, avascularity, fracture gap, and presence of infection have all been implicated as causes for development of an ununited fracture
Percutaneous autogenous bone marrow grafting in 20 cases of ununited fracture
2000) Treatment of ununited fracture
of the hook of the hamate by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.
However open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the treatment of choice for most type 2 and type 3 fractures because it prevents complications that arise due to unreduced or ununited fracture
Bassett, "The development and application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) for ununited fractures
and arthrodeses," Orthopedic Clinics of North America, vol.
Treatment of ununited fractures
of the scaphoid by iliac bone grafts and Kirschner-wire fixation.
Campbell WC: Ununited fractures
of the shaft of the humerus.
Hey-Groves EW: Ununited fractures
with special reference to gunshot injuries and the use of bone grafting.