Motion at the fracture site, avascularity, fracture gap, and presence of infection have all been implicated as causes for development of an ununited fracture
Percutaneous autogenous bone marrow grafting in 20 cases of ununited fracture
2000) Treatment of ununited fracture
of the hook of the hamate by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.
The development and application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) for ununited fractures
and arthrodeses", Clin Plast Surg, 12:159-277.
Treatment of ununited fractures
of the scaphoid by iliac bone grafts and Kirschner-wire fixation.
Campbell WC: Ununited fractures
of the shaft of the humerus.