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an acidosis in which the pH of body fluids is subnormal, because restoration of normal acid-base balance is not possible or has not yet been achieved.
a pathological condition resulting from accumulation of acid or depletion of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate content) in the blood and body tissues, and characterized by increase in hydrogen ion concentration (decrease in pH).
The optimal acid-base balance is maintained by chemical buffers, biological activities of the cells, and effective functioning of the lungs and kidneys. The opposite of acidosis is alkalosis.
It is rare that acidosis occurs in the absence of some underlying disease process. The more obvious signs of severe acidosis are muscle twitching, involuntary movement, cardiac arrhythmias, disorientation and coma.
a condition in which the compensatory mechanisms have returned the pH toward normal.
a metabolic acidosis produced by accumulation of ketones in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
may result from administration of drugs, such as urinary acidifiers, or anesthetic agents which depress respiration.
the accumulation of lactate in the rumen in ruminants and the stomach of horses, and hence in the blood, as a result of overfeeding with readily fermentable carbohydrate. See also carbohydrate engorgement.
acidosis resulting from accumulation in the blood of keto acids (derived from fat metabolism) at the expense of bicarbonate, thus diminishing the body's ability to neutralize acids. This type of acidosis can occur when there is an acid gain, as in diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, poisoning and failure of the renal tubules to reabsorb bicarbonate. It can also result from bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or a gastrointestinal fistula.
mixed alkalosis and acidosis
characterized by low serum chloride, normal or slightly elevated plasma bicarbonate and a very high anion gap.
accumulation of organic anions occurs in uremia, diabetic acidosis and lactic acidosis, and ingestion of salicylates, ethylene glycol or methanol.
renal tubular acidosis
renal tubular malfunction leads to faulty resorption of bicarbonate or excretion of acid and the production of alkaline urine; types I (distal tubular acidosis) and II (proximal tubular acidosis) are identified.
acidosis resulting from ventilatory impairment and subsequent retention of carbon dioxide.
acidosis caused by an altered metabolic state, usually lactic acidosis, in the rumen.
a metabolic acidosis due to accumulation of ketones following a severe caloric deficit.
a condition in which the compensatory mechanisms have not been applied sufficiently to return the pH of the blood to normal.
see metabolic acidosis (above).