typhoid


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Related to typhoid: malaria, typhoid vaccine

typhoid

 [ti´foid]
1. resembling typhus.
typhoid fever a bacterial infection transmitted by contaminated water, milk or other foods, especially shellfish. The causative organism is Salmonella typhi, which is harbored in human feces. Entering the body through the intestinal tract, the bacillus starts multiplying in the bloodstream, causing fever and diarrhea. The usual incubation period is 7 to 14 days. Later the bacilli localize in the intestinal tract or the gallbladder.

Symptoms. The first symptoms are headache, perhaps sore throat and a fever that may reach 40.5°C (105°F). The temperature rises daily, reaching a peak in 7 to 10 days, maintaining this level for about another week, and then subsiding by the end of the fourth week. Periods of chills and sweating may occur, with loss of appetite. A watery, grayish or greenish diarrhea is common, but constipation sometimes occurs instead. After 2 weeks, red spots begin to appear on the chest and abdomen. If the case is severe, the patient may lapse into states of delirious muttering and staring into space. About the third to fourth week an improvement is noticeable, and steady recovery follows. The disease is serious and sometimes fatal.
Transmission. Those who have had typhoid fever gain immunity from it but may become carriers. Although perfectly well, they harbor the bacteria and pass them out in their feces and urine. The typhoid bacillus often lodges in the gallbladder of carriers, and when the gallbladder is removed the person may cease to be a carrier. In cities, food handled by carriers is the principal source of infection. In rural areas carriers may infect food that they raise, such as fruit and fresh vegetables. When sewage and sanitation systems are poor, the organisms may enter the water supply. They can also be spread to food and water by flies that have been in contact with body waste. Contamination is more likely in regions where human feces are used to fertilize the crops.
Prevention and Treatment. Once a widespread disease, typhoid fever has now been virtually eliminated in countries with advanced sanitation. Proper sanitation involves (1) good sewage systems to dispose of human wastes and (2) proper measures for keeping foods uncontaminated. Food should be carefully protected from flies. One should wash the hands carefully before eating and after going to the toilet. Effective medicines, such as the antibiotic chloramphenicol, are available for treatment of the disease. A less serious disease whose symptoms resemble those of typhoid fever is paratyphoid fever, which is also transmitted by contaminated food or liquids.
Patient Care. Patients with typhoid and paratyphoid fever are placed under enteric precautions until the urine and feces are free of bacilli. If sewage treatment for the community is adequate, feces and urine need not be disinfected, but if there is danger of incomplete destruction of the bacilli by sewage treatment methods, such waste should be disinfected by chlorinated lime or a 4 per cent Lysol solution before disposal. Other precautionary measures to prevent spread of the disease include adequate screening of windows and doors so that flies may not come in contact with waste products.



Most patients with typhoid fever require measures to lower the body temperature when fever is extreme. These include cool sponge baths, application of ice bags, and administration of antipyretic drugs as ordered. Fluids should be forced, to prevent dehydration. The diet should consist of soft, bland, easily digested, and nourishing foods. Observations of the patient include watching for sudden temperature changes, signs of intestinal bleeding, and symptoms of intestinal perforation.

kaolin or a similar medication may be needed to help control diarrhea. If constipation becomes a problem, a low saline enema should be given in preference to a cathartic because of the danger of intestinal perforation. Good oral hygiene and care of the lips and mouth are essential, as for any patient with a prolonged febrile condition. In addition, the patient must be kept clean and dry and turned frequently to avoid the development of pressure ulcers. During the convalescent period the patient will need adequate rest and a well-rounded diet to facilitate recovery from this debilitating illness.

ty·phoid

(tī'foyd),
1. Typhuslike; stuporous from fever.
2. Synonym(s): typhoid fever
[typhus + G. eidos, resemblance]

typhoid

/ty·phoid/ (ti´foid)
1. resembling typhus.

typhoid

(tī′foid′)
n.
Typhoid fever.
adj. also typhoidal (tī-foid′l)
Of, relating to, or resembling typhoid fever.

typhoid

[tī′foid]
Etymology: Gk, typhos, fever, eidos, form
pertaining to or resembling typhus.

typhoid

adjective
(1) Typhus-like. 
(2) Referring or pertaining to Salmonella typhi infection.

noun Typhoid fever.

ty·phoid

(tī'foyd)
1. Typhuslike; stuporous from fever.
2. Synonym(s): typhoid fever.
[typhus + G. eidos, resemblance]

typhoid

1. resembling typhus.
2. typhoid fever, an infectious disease of humans caused by Salmonella typhi.

mouse typhoid
salmonellosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by bacteria, spread by contaminated food and water, and it is highly contagious, there is need to stress preventative measures such as washing hands frequently, practising proper physical hygiene, and only eating well cooked foods and drinking boiled water.
Typbar-TCV is the only typhoid vaccine to have received approval from the WHO for use in infants as young as six months.
Prof Sam Kariuki, the head of microbiology at Kemri, recently said the drug-resistant strain of typhoid, called H58, was found in Nairobi's Mukuru kwa Njenga slum.
The new typhoid conjugate vaccine is packaged to help curb the frequent use of antibiotics for treatment of presumed typhoid fever, thereby slowing the increase in antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhi.
Early this year, a researcher warned that poor laboratory capability, surveillance and lack of sanitation are enabling the spread of a typhoid strain that is resistant to drugs.
Like more than 100 other residents of Oxford, England, he was taking part in a trial of a new typhoid vaccine.
Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify risk factors of typhoid fever.
Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010.
EIGHT out of the top 30 countries most visited by UK citizens have recommended vaccinations associated with them TURKEY Hepatitis A and Tetanus but should also consider having Hepatitis B and Rabies MEXICO Hepatitis A, Tetanus and Typhoid.
Although there is tremendous improvement in diagnostics, antibiotics, operative technology and monitoring, yet morbidity and mortality of typhoid perforation remains high.