The study is designed to assess whether a single cycle of ImmunoPulse IL-12 increases TNBC tumor immunogenicity by driving a pro-inflammatory cascade of events including activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
NKTR-214 is the first I-O agent to both increase tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
(TILs) and increase PD-1 expression on human immune cells, which uniquely complements checkpoint inhibition and other anti-cancer mechanisms.
In addition, the presence or absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
and peritumoral lymphoid aggregates was noted.
are associated with improved survival in multiple types of cancer, including endometrial.
Previous investigations indicated that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
represent the host immune response to cancer and further suggested that CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cells have a central role in eliminating tumors and that regulatory T-cells may suppress the immune reaction.
Additionally, the company's lead product candidate is an adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
(TIL) for the treatment of patients with refractory metastatic melanoma, and is based on a clinical Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the National Cancer Institute.
Vaccine trials directed against high-grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme  have incorporated the use of dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate [18, 19], antibodies to tumor antigen EGFRvIII , irradiated tumor injected with immunomodulators , and adoptive transfer of immunity of expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
In melanoma, through homophilic interactions, CEACAM1 inhibits natural killer (NK) cell activity and effector functions (such as cytotoxicity and interferon gamma (IFNy) release) of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
predict response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.
Preclinical trials show that CM-24 enhances the cytotoxic activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
(TILs) against various CEACAM1-positive tumor cell lines.
In addition, fresh tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
have been observed to be poorly cytotoxic against tumor targets and do not undergo normal signaling in response to T-cell receptor engagement.
High number of intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
is associated with the absence of lymph node metastases in patients with large early-stage cervical cancer.