Tremorgenic mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that have a specific effect on the central nervous system.
A number of toxinogenic fungal species, particularly producers of tremorgenic mycotoxins (penitrem A (15), fumitremorgen B, paxilline, verrucosidin, and verruculogen), have been isolated from traditional fermented meats.
Penitrem A (15) is a well-recognised tremorgenic mycotoxin produced by several Penicillium spp.
A strain of Penicillium nigricans, which produces both the anti- fungal antibiotic griseofulvin and tremorgenic penitrem mycotoxins concurrently in static liquid culture, also elaborated both metabolites in submerged culture when stimulated by calcium chloride to sporulate.
is an isomer of penitrem E and is also similarly tremorgenic (Naik et al.
The anti-insectan metabolite 10-oxo-ll,33-dihydropenitrem B (26) was isolated from the sclerotia of Aspergillus sulphureus and is related to the penitrems, a known group of tremorgenic fungal metabolites.
A prominent analogue of penitrem A (15), pennigritrem (29), has been resolved from the tremorgenic alkaloids of a strain of Penicillium nigricans, which has been shown to involve the terminal diterpenoid isoprene during cyclisation, a unique process among fungal indole-diterpenoids.
Structures of new indoloditerpenes, possible biosynthetic precursors of the tremorgenic mycotoxins, penitrems, from Penicillium crustosum.
simplicissimum, the correct names for two common species producing tremorgenic mycotoxins.
Genotoxicity assessment of five tremorgenic mycotoxins (fumitremorgen B, paxilline, penitrem A, verruculogen, and verrucosidin) produced by molds isolated from fermented meats.