of Francisella tularensis holarctica in Mosquitoes, Sweden
Similarly, the infection passes from the egg to the larva or adult in a process called transstadial transmission
of infectious agents is also possible, such as with hard ticks.
of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks.
Our results suggest natural transstadial transmission of F.
Transstadial transmission by mosquitoes after ingestion of pathogenic microorganisms as larvae has previously been shown for Rift Valley fever virus (16).
aureolatum ticks are highly efficient in maintaining the infection through 100% transstadial transmission
, transovarial transmission, and filial infection rates.
The ticks maintained infection throughout the molt, thereby establishing transstadial transmission
henselae of molted ticks previously fed infected blood, suggesting that transstadial transmission
may be possible.
This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission
of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EUI.
More recently, an artificial membrane system was used to infect Argas arboreus ticks, which were then able to transmit the virus to uninfected hosts, although transstadial transmission
of WNV was not observed (25,26).