translocation heterozygote

Translocation heterozygoteclick for a larger image
Fig. 305 Translocation heterozygote . Adjacent and alternate disjunction.
Translocation heterozygoteclick for a larger image
Fig. 304 Translocation heterozygote . (a) Normal cell. (b) Reciprocal translocation heterozygote.

translocation heterozygote

an individual carrying cells with one normal set of chromosomes and one set in which a reciprocal TRANSLOCATION has occurred between two non-HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES. See Fig. 304 . Such an event causes pairing problems in prophase 1 of MEIOSIS when the chromatids undergo SYNAPSIS (2). These problems are solved by producing a cross-shaped configuration where all chromosomal segments are correctly paired.

When the chromatids separate they can do so in two ways, ‘adjacent’ or ‘alternate’ disjunction. See Fig. 305 . Adjacent disjunction produces gametes that have duplicated and deficient chromosomal segments, and therefore produces gametes that can cause death in the offspring. Alternate disjunction, produced by a twisting of the cross, results in a mixture of completely normal gametes and ones containing a balanced translocation. These types are both viable and the progeny will all survive. The overall result of a translocation heterozygote is that about half of the progeny survive, a fact that has been used in experiments to control insect populations.

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Genetic control of mosquitoes; mating competitiveness of translocation heterozygote males of Anopheles stephensi Liston--a malaria vector in laboratory cage trials.
Cytogenetic expectations regarding recombination in a translocation heterozygote are presented in Fig.
Translocations may have profound effects on recombination through physical suppression of pairing around the breakpoint (Burnham, 1934; Bridges and Brehme, 1944), as well as inviability of duplicate-deficient (Dp-Df) spores arising from interstitial recombination in translocation heterozygotes (Sansome, 1932).
In each generation, selection for translocation heterozygotes and against disassembled chromosomes MA1 was by C-banding.
After seven backcrosses, the translocation heterozygotes, which were developed from two separate backcross programs, were self-pollinated.
Selection of the translocation heterozygotes in backcrosses was by C-banding.
7] the translocation heterozygotes were self pollinated and among their progeny, translocation homozygotes and their 2B disomic sibs were isolated and grown.