transfer RNA


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RNA

 
messenger RNA (mRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
transfer RNA (tRNA) see ribonucleic acid.

trans·fer RNA (tRNA),

short-chain RNA molecules present in cells in at least 20 varieties, each variety is capable of combining with a specific amino acid (see aminoacyl-tRNA). By joining (through their anticodons) with particular spots (codons) along the messenger RNA molecule and carrying their amino acyl residues along, they lead to the formation of protein molecules with a specific amino acid arrangement-the one ultimately dictated by a segment of DNA in the chromosomes. Each tRNA has about 80 nucleotides (MW about 25,000); most of the 20 varieties occur in multiple "isoacceptor" forms, separable by chromatography. Further subvarieties exist in, e.g., different strains of an organism, in subcellular organelles, and in different metabolic states. Cognate tRNAs are the tRNAs recognized by the specific amino acyl-tRNA synthetases.

transfer RNA

n. Abbr. tRNA
One of a class of RNA molecules that transport amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis.

transfer RNA (tRNA)

a kind of RNA that carries an anticodon (three nucleotide bases) and a specific amino acid. The identity of the amino acid is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in the anticodon. There are 64 possible anticodons and about two dozen amino acids that are found in proteins. This means that several anticodons may specify to the same amino acid. Each anticodon is complementary to a specific codon in the messenger RNA. The tRNAs (with their amino acids attached) translate the sequence of codons in messenger RNA into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. Also called adaptor RNA.

trans·fer RNA

(tRNA) (trans'fĕr)
Short-chain RNA molecules present in cells in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid (see aminoacyl-tRNA). By joining (through their anticodons) with particular spots (codons) along the messenger RNA molecule and carrying their amino acyl residues along, they lead to the formation of protein molecules with a specific amino acid arrangement.
Synonym(s): soluble RNA.

transfer RNA

A short-chain RIBONUCLEIC ACID molecule present in cells in at least 20 different varieties, each capable of combining with a specific amino acid and positioning it appropriately in a polypeptide chain that is being synthesized in a ribosome. Transfer RNA is a four-armed, clover-leaf-like structure. At the end of one arm is an ANTICODON, complementary to the codon for an amino acid in MESSENGER RNA. At the end of the opposite arm is a site to which the appropriate amino acid can be covalently linked. When a molecule of transfer RNA is linked to the amino acid corresponding to its anticodon it becomes aminoacyl-tRNA. The identity of the passenger on a particular tRNA molecule is determined by its anticodon rather than by its attached amino acid.
Transfer RNAclick for a larger image
Fig. 302 Transfer RNA .

transfer RNA (tRNA)

a form of RNA molecule with about 80 NUCLEOTIDES and a secondary ‘cloverleaf structure, whose function is to carry specific AMINO ACIDS to the ribosomes during TRANSLATION. At one end (3′ end) there is attachment of the amino acid producing AMINOACYL-tRNA. One of the arms of the cloverleaf, the ‘anticodon arm’, contains the anticodon with three bases complementary to the codon on MESSENGER RNA. See Fig. 302 . Different tRNA molecules bind different amino acids and act as adaptors to match the amino acids to their specific codons on mRNA.

transfer RNA

tRNA; see ribonucleic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition to having self-catalytic activity, RNA molecules are involved in all the steps of translation, from the initial activation of amino acids by attaching them to transfer RNAs to the association of messenger RNAs and aminoacyltransfer RNAs with ribosomes to the actual polymerization of amino acids into polypeptide chains.
The EST00083 polymorphism association with IQ was from the mtDNA part of the clone and shown to be in a mtDNA gene that codes for threonine transfer RNA (Skuder et al.
Rodriguez performed many laborious experiments in which she removed portions of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that interact with the anticodon stem of the transfer RNA, far from the part of the enzyme that binds the amino acid.
People have conjectured that there would be a step in which RNA molecules played the role of proteins, attaching amino acids to the transfer RNA molecule.
Since these RNA molecules transferred the information from the ribosomes to the proteins, they were called transfer RNA.
Cells are bags of protein and one of the components involved in protein production is transfer RNA (tRNA).
These include transfer RNA (tRNA), which operates as a decoder, and the enzymes that add amino acids to each tRNA.
The second example I would like to give is about molecules that can regulate gene expression, where we have to investigate molecules that target messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA as drug targets.
There, molecules of another form of RNA, short strands called transfer RNA (tRNA), briefly hook up to the ribosomes.
This enzyme plays an essential role in fungal protein synthesis by attaching the leucine amino acid to transfer RNA, or tRNA.
Today, those same functional groups show up in proteins prevalent in the animal kingdom, as well as in the transfer RNA of cells.
a drug discovery technology company, today announced plans for the development of a new High-Throughput Screening (HTS) assay capable of selectively identifying compounds that inhibit the reproduction of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria through a unique mechanism of action: the target pathogen's ability to use transfer RNA (tRNA) in replication.