trans fatty acid

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Related to trans fatty acid: polyunsaturated fatty acid

trans fatty acid

An unsaturated fatty acid produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and present in hardened vegetable oils, most margarines, commercial baked foods, and many fried foods. An excess of these fats in the diet is associated with high LDL cholesterol levels, low HDL cholesterol levels, and an increased risk of coronary heart disease.

trans fat

An unsaturated fat containing a trans—i.e., the carbon moieties on the two sides of the double bond point in opposite directions—(E)- isomer. Trans fats (TFs) are not found in nature; minimal TFs are present in animal fats. TFs are abundant in margarines, frying fats and shortenings, and are formed when polyunsaturated fat-rich vegetable and marine oils and vegetable shortenings are “hardened” by partial hydrogenation, producing fats with a firmness and consistency desired by both food manufacturers and consumers. The most abundant TF is elaidic acid and its isomers, which are 18-carbon molecules with one double bond.

TFs comprise 6 to 8% of the daily per capita consumption of fat in developed nations; health experts recommend reduction of TFs to trace amounts, as increased dietary TFs result in increased total and LDL-cholesterol, reduced HDL-cholesterol and an increased risk of coronary artery disease.

trans fatty acid

An unsaturated fatty acid–present in minimal amounts in animal fat–prepared by hydrogenation, which ↑ serum cholesterol Cardiovascular disease ↑ TFAs have a relative risk of 1.4 for CAD in ♂ in the upper quintile for intake of TFAs, and 1.4 for breast CA in ♀ in the highest quartile for TFA consumption. See Fatty acids Clinical nutrition TFAs are abundant in margarines, frying fats and shortenings; TFAs comprise 6–8% of ± 120 g/day/person fat consumption in developed nations; the most abundant TFA is elaidic acid; ↓ dietary TFA result in ↓ total cholesterol; the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C is lowest after consumption of soybean oil; Cf Cisfatty acid, Fatty acid, Fish, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Olive oil, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Tropical oils, Unsaturated fatty acid.

trans fat·ty ac·id

(tranz fa'tē as'id)
Trans form of a monounsaturated fatty acid usually produced as a result of the hydrogenation of polyunsaturated plant oils during industrial processing.
References in periodicals archive ?
Trans fatty acids in Canadian breast milk and diet.
In pregnant rats and rat pups, Larque, Zamora, and Gil (2001) confirmed that trans fatty acids cross the placenta and are incorporated into fetal rat tissue.
Unlike trans fatty acids and short-chain essential cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes can come from both diet and in vivo biosynthesis, thus making them unsuitable as biomarkers of intake (29).
She says trans fatty acids are found naturally in some animal-derived foods such as butter, milk and beef at levels around 3% to 6%.
The trans fatty acid and positional (sn-2) fatty acid composition of some Australian margarines, dairy blends and animal fats.
Positioned within the Craigmillar portfolio, the bakery fats are low in trans fatty acids, which are produced mainly during the hydrogenation process, and so represent a healthier alternative, without compromising on taste.
Produced through a chemical process called hydrogenation, in which hydrogen is added to unsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids are a form of fat with a longer shelf life and a higher melting point--factors that certainly appealed to manufacturers.
The study -- the first to show a significant association between such fats and the life-threatening illness -- is important because people can reduce trans fatty acid consumption by changing diets, researchers maintain.
The researchers speculate whether this naturally occurring trans fatty acid in dairy fats may partly mimic the normal biologic role of cis-palmitoleic acid that is produced in the body.