The tragulid fossils discussed in this paper were collected from both parts of Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon (Fig.
The tragulid specimens have been collected in more than 20 visits occurred to this locality from April 2011 to February 2013.
The material is assigned to two tragulid species Dorcatherium minus and D.
Six extant tragulid species are present in the Old World: Tragulus spp.
This contribution documents a new lower molar series (m1-3) of rare tragulid
tragelaphoides, a tragulid
Dorcatherium, a giraffid Giraffokeryx punjabiensis and a proboscidean Deinotherium cf.
The comparative anatomy and physiology of digestion in tragulids
and cervids and its relation to food intake.
Fossils vertebrates in the Napak Member tend to occur as isolated fragments, but Napak XV is unusual in this respect, having yielded partial skeletons of a variety of vertebrates (crocodiles, rodents) and almost complete cranial remains (gymnophionan, Ugandapithecus, rodents, insectivores) and dentognathic fossils (relatively complete maxillae and mandibles of Limnopithecus, amphicyonids, tragulids
, pecorans, suids).
Pecora/Ruminantia (Limeryx, Asiohomacodon, praetragulids, archaeomerycids, lophiomerycids, leptomerycids, tragulids
, "pecorans"): Ms primitively bunoselenodont, but (unlike hypertragulids) with mesostyles; tibia, fibula primitively unfused or coossified proximally; cubonavicular; primitively, no ectomesocuneiform (OW origin, except leptomerycids).
A principle difference is that tragulids
have fewer exocrine glands than "real" deer.
Studies of evolutionary trends in dentition of the Siwalik tragulids
and cervids are small and medium size ruminants (Gentry et al.