In terms of phytocoenotic confinement, tracheophyte
plants are dominated by meadow (48.
Generally, however, the filiation sequence has been relatively clear: chlorophytes, then charophytes, then either liverworts or hornworts, then mosses, and finally, tracheophytes
Because hornworts have wall xylans, stomates, and a well-differentiated sporophyte meristem similar to those of tracheophytes
, there is reason to suspect they are closer to the tracheophytes
Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as phyllids and rhizoids in nonvascular plants, or leaves, roots, and other organs that are found in tracheophytes
The Hornworts (Anthocerophytina) are a small (about 500 species in 12 genera) but evolutionarily important group as the most current phylogenies find them to be the closest extant relatives of the tracheophytes
(Carafa et al.