(VAT): questions, answers, and a new paradigm?
3) These most recent studies find that the main pulmonary histopathological change of novel H1N1 is tracheobronchitis
with diffuse alveolar damage, a pattern of pulmonary pathology that does not differ significantly from historical analyses of prior pandemic strains of influenza.
The largest study of mechanical ventilation in LTCHs (Ventilator Outcomes [Barlow] Study) found that 31% of the 1,419 study patients in 23 LTCHs were treated for pneumonia or tracheobronchitis
in 2003 but did not discuss VAP control issues (Scheinhorn et al.
HSV-1 may cause tracheobronchitis
or pneumonitis and is associated with significantly increased mortality in critically ill patients.
Canine infectious tracheobronchitis
(IT) has long been associated with three major pathogens.
It infects the upper and lower respiratory tracts, leading to upper respiratory tract infection, bronchiolitis, tracheobronchitis
, bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Among adults, RSV infections usually present as a self-limiting upper respiratory tract illness or tracheobronchitis
HIV-infected patients are also at an increased risk for developing infectious airway disease such as bacterial tracheobronchitis
and bronchiolitis, which are known as pyrogenic airway diseases.
An infection of the bronchi alone is rare, however, and usually tracheobronchitis
is present, with involvement of other areas of the respiratory tract.
23) Studies have addressed the use of chlorhexidine before intubation, (23) in patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery, (23,26) and in patients with respiratory infections such as tracheobronchitis
In the majority of cases, the infection is either a tracheobronchitis
or an anastomotic infection, whereas invasive pulmonary infections and disseminated disease are less frequent.
TABLE 2 Initial empiric therapy in outpatients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Group Clinical status Symptoms/risk factors 0 Acute * Cough and sputum tracheobronchitis
* No prior pulmonary disease 1 Chronic * Increased cough and sputum bronchitis * Sputum purulence without risk * Increased dyspnea factors 2 Chronic * As in group 1 plus at least 1 bronchitis with of the following: risk factors - FE[V.