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trace mineralAny of a group of metal ions present in minimal (milligram or microgram) amounts in biological systems, which are required for their optimal activity. Trace mineral enzyme cofactors play critical roles in the organisation of molecules, membranes and mitochondria, and include chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, silicon, vanadium and zinc. These minerals are maintained in a delicate balance between toxic excess and nutritional deficiency that may induce metabolic failure, an event most common in total parenteral nutrition.
any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more minerals forming the mineral composition of the animal body; at least 13 are essential to health. These minerals must be supplied in the diet and are generally found in a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products which meet the energy and protein needs. Nutritional deficiencies of individual minerals are listed under each of them.
see under the appropriate mineral, e.g. phosphorus, iodine.
the excessive output of a mineral from the animal body, leading to a state of deficiency; a negative balance.
imbalances between minerals that need to be maintained in a proper balance with others as well as being present in appropriate absolute amounts, e.g. calcium:phosphorus, sodium:potassium.
mixtures of stock grade salt, with sterilized bonemeal, copper, cobalt, iodine and other trace minerals where required, in granular form or in a hard cake for licking. Set out in barns or at pasture for ad lib access by cattle, sheep, goats. Called also lick.
minerals added to the diet of animals to prevent or correct a nutritional deficiency.
see trace element.
limits of dietary supplementation with minerals which animals can survive for a limited period without a decline in their production or performance, and without creating unsafe residues in the human food chain.