toxigenic


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poison

 [poi´zun]
a substance that, on ingestion, inhalation, absorption, application, injection, or development within the body, in relatively small amounts, may cause structural or functional disturbance. Called also toxin and venom. adj., adj poisonous.

Corrosives are poisons that destroy tissues directly. They include the mineral acids, such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid; the caustic alkalis, such as ammonia, sodium hydroxide (lye), sodium carbonate, and sodium hypochlorite; and carbolic acid (phenol). Irritants are poisons that inflame the mucous membranes by direct action. These include arsenic, copper sulfate, salts of lead, zinc, and phosphorus, and many others. neurotoxins or nerve toxins act on the nerves or affect some of the basic cell processes. This large group includes the narcotics, such as opium, heroin, and cocaine, and the barbiturates, anesthetics, and alcohols. hemotoxins or blood toxins act on the blood and deprive it of oxygen. They include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocyanic acid, and the gases used in chemical warfare. Some blood toxins destroy the blood cells or the platelets. See also poisoning and names of individual poisons.
poison ivy, oak, and sumac common plants of the genus Rhus that cause allergic skin reactions. The poison contained in their leaves, roots, and berries is an oily substance called urushiol. It has no effect on some people; in others, momentary or even indirect contact may cause itching and even painful rashes, blisters, and swelling; see Rhusdermatitis.
Poison Ivy. Poison ivy (Rhus radicans) grows in the form of climbing vines, shrubs that trail on the ground, and shrubbery that grows upright without any support. The vine clings to stone and brick houses and climbs trees and poles. It flourishes abundantly along fences, paths, and roadways, and is often partly hidden by other foliage.
Recognition. The poison ivy plant is attractive and is often picked as a decoration by unsuspecting flower gatherers. Although poison ivy comes in many forms and displays seasonal changes, it has one constant characteristic: The leaves always grow in clusters of three, one at the end of the stalk, the other two opposite one another.
Transmission. The plant is particularly potent in the spring and early summer when it is full of oily resinous sap. This forms an invisible film upon the human skin on contact. Direct contact is not always necessary. Some cases of poison ivy dermatitis are caused by the handling of clothing or garden implements that have been contaminated by the sap, sometimes months earlier; dogs and cats may carry it on their fur. Many people are so sensitive that smoke from a brush fire containing poison ivy brings on a rash.
Symptoms. After exposure, the symptoms of poison ivy dermatitis may develop in a matter of hours, though sometimes they do not appear for several days. There is reddening on the hands, neck, face, legs, or whatever parts of the body have been exposed, with considerable itching. Small blisters form which later become larger and eventually exude a watery fluid. The skin then becomes crusty and dry. After a few weeks all symptoms spontaneously disappear.
Treatment. An attack of poison ivy dermatitis can sometimes be avoided if the skin is washed immediately after contact. The skin should be lathered several times and rinsed each time in running water. This may remove all or at least part of the poison ivy film before it is able to penetrate the skin. If, despite precautions, dermatitis does develop, various treatments may relieve the itching. An old standard remedy is calamine lotion. If the inflammation becomes unusually severe or is accompanied by fever, a health care provider should be consulted. A cortisone preparation may be prescribed, which can be taken orally, injected, or applied locally as a cream.
Poison Oak. Poison oak (Rhus diversiloba or R. toxicodendron), sometimes known as oakleaf ivy, is related to poison ivy and not to the oak tree; its eastern and western varieties resemble each other closely. It is usually a low-growing shrub and seldom a climbing vine. It has three leaves, like poison ivy, but they are lobed and bear a slight resemblance to small oak leaves. Its berries are white and small, like those of poison ivy. Poison oak causes the same symptoms as poison ivy. Prevention and treatment are the same as for poison ivy.
Poison Sumac. Although poison sumac (Rhus vernix) goes by other names, such as swamp sumac, poison elder, poison ash, poison dogwood, and thunderwood, there is only one variety of it. Sometimes, however, poison sumac is confused with the several harmless kinds of sumac. Poison sumac is a coarse woody shrub or small tree, and it has white berries, distinguishing it from the harmless varieties of sumac, which have red berries. Symptoms and treatment are the same as for poison ivy.
poison center (poison control center) a telephone service with toxicology experts providing emergency treatment advice for all kinds of poisonings, 24 hours a day. Poison control centers also provide poison prevention information to the community and education about recognition and treatment of poison exposures for health care providers. By gathering data about the outcomes of poison exposures, they also identify new or unexpected toxic hazards, allowing for product recalls, reformulations, or repackaging. Their staffs include physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with training in toxicology. There are more than 500 poison control centers in the United States; 65 of them are officially certified and are members of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. All of these provide 24-hour service and can be reached by calling 1-800-222-1222. See the Appendix of Poison Control Centers, which lists the certified ones.

tox·i·no·gen·ic

(tok'si-nō-jen'ik),
Producing a toxin, said of an organism.
Synonym(s): toxigenic
[toxin + G. -gen, producing]

toxigenic

/tox·i·gen·ic/ (tok″sĭ-jen´ik)
1. producing or elaborating toxins.
2. derived from or containing toxins.

toxigenic

(tŏk′sə-jĕn′ĭk)
adj.
Producing poison; toxicogenic.

tox′i·ge·nic′i·ty (-jə-nĭs′ĭ-tē) n.

tox·i·no·gen·ic

(tok'si-nō-jen'ik)
Producing a toxin, said of an organism.
Synonym(s): toxigenic.
[toxin + G. -gen, producing]

toxigenic

caused by or producing toxins.

toxigenic diarrhea
see secretory diarrhea.
References in periodicals archive ?
Possible zoonotic transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans from companion animals in a human case of fatal diphtheria.
Evaluation of tcdB real-time PCR in a three-step diagnostic algorithm for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.
In 2005, Delmee et al compared the results of the direct fecal cytotoxicity test and toxigenic culture on 10,552 specimens of diarrheal stool (39).
Its waxing and waning presence during a red tide may provide a partial explanation for anecdotal accounts of high toxigenic organism cell counts in the absence of pronounced fish kills or respiratory irritation, or of relatively low cell counts and reports of "respiratory irritation" (Fleming et al.
The program developed technology for the production of the principal Fusarium mycotoxins, including fumonisin, and, in conjunction with Carleton University has discovered most of the known metabolites from the toxigenic fusaria.
Today there is insufficient epidemiological evidence to conclude, with a 5 percent margin of error, that neurological damage can be caused by exposure to certain toxigenic molds.
Of the 32 babies Dearborn and his colleagues have treated, he says, "Ninety percent have come from water-damaged homes containing toxigenic fungi and environmental tobacco smoke.
There, by colonizing the peanut pod zone, the mold becomes a living shield against toxigenic fungi.
These tests use Meridian's proprietary technologies in rapid formats for the detection of Rotavirus (Pediatric Diarrhea) and Toxigenic E.
Toxigenic Mold--A Management Response on page 56, by John C.
Identification of virulent bacteria among a large background of harmless ones is important, an example of which involves identifying toxigenic E.