toxigenic


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poison

 [poi´zun]
a substance that, on ingestion, inhalation, absorption, application, injection, or development within the body, in relatively small amounts, may cause structural or functional disturbance. Called also toxin and venom. adj., adj poisonous.

Corrosives are poisons that destroy tissues directly. They include the mineral acids, such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid; the caustic alkalis, such as ammonia, sodium hydroxide (lye), sodium carbonate, and sodium hypochlorite; and carbolic acid (phenol). Irritants are poisons that inflame the mucous membranes by direct action. These include arsenic, copper sulfate, salts of lead, zinc, and phosphorus, and many others. neurotoxins or nerve toxins act on the nerves or affect some of the basic cell processes. This large group includes the narcotics, such as opium, heroin, and cocaine, and the barbiturates, anesthetics, and alcohols. hemotoxins or blood toxins act on the blood and deprive it of oxygen. They include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocyanic acid, and the gases used in chemical warfare. Some blood toxins destroy the blood cells or the platelets. See also poisoning and names of individual poisons.
poison ivy, oak, and sumac common plants of the genus Rhus that cause allergic skin reactions. The poison contained in their leaves, roots, and berries is an oily substance called urushiol. It has no effect on some people; in others, momentary or even indirect contact may cause itching and even painful rashes, blisters, and swelling; see Rhusdermatitis.
Poison Ivy. Poison ivy (Rhus radicans) grows in the form of climbing vines, shrubs that trail on the ground, and shrubbery that grows upright without any support. The vine clings to stone and brick houses and climbs trees and poles. It flourishes abundantly along fences, paths, and roadways, and is often partly hidden by other foliage.
Recognition. The poison ivy plant is attractive and is often picked as a decoration by unsuspecting flower gatherers. Although poison ivy comes in many forms and displays seasonal changes, it has one constant characteristic: The leaves always grow in clusters of three, one at the end of the stalk, the other two opposite one another.
Transmission. The plant is particularly potent in the spring and early summer when it is full of oily resinous sap. This forms an invisible film upon the human skin on contact. Direct contact is not always necessary. Some cases of poison ivy dermatitis are caused by the handling of clothing or garden implements that have been contaminated by the sap, sometimes months earlier; dogs and cats may carry it on their fur. Many people are so sensitive that smoke from a brush fire containing poison ivy brings on a rash.
Symptoms. After exposure, the symptoms of poison ivy dermatitis may develop in a matter of hours, though sometimes they do not appear for several days. There is reddening on the hands, neck, face, legs, or whatever parts of the body have been exposed, with considerable itching. Small blisters form which later become larger and eventually exude a watery fluid. The skin then becomes crusty and dry. After a few weeks all symptoms spontaneously disappear.
Treatment. An attack of poison ivy dermatitis can sometimes be avoided if the skin is washed immediately after contact. The skin should be lathered several times and rinsed each time in running water. This may remove all or at least part of the poison ivy film before it is able to penetrate the skin. If, despite precautions, dermatitis does develop, various treatments may relieve the itching. An old standard remedy is calamine lotion. If the inflammation becomes unusually severe or is accompanied by fever, a health care provider should be consulted. A cortisone preparation may be prescribed, which can be taken orally, injected, or applied locally as a cream.
Poison Oak. Poison oak (Rhus diversiloba or R. toxicodendron), sometimes known as oakleaf ivy, is related to poison ivy and not to the oak tree; its eastern and western varieties resemble each other closely. It is usually a low-growing shrub and seldom a climbing vine. It has three leaves, like poison ivy, but they are lobed and bear a slight resemblance to small oak leaves. Its berries are white and small, like those of poison ivy. Poison oak causes the same symptoms as poison ivy. Prevention and treatment are the same as for poison ivy.
Poison Sumac. Although poison sumac (Rhus vernix) goes by other names, such as swamp sumac, poison elder, poison ash, poison dogwood, and thunderwood, there is only one variety of it. Sometimes, however, poison sumac is confused with the several harmless kinds of sumac. Poison sumac is a coarse woody shrub or small tree, and it has white berries, distinguishing it from the harmless varieties of sumac, which have red berries. Symptoms and treatment are the same as for poison ivy.
poison center (poison control center) a telephone service with toxicology experts providing emergency treatment advice for all kinds of poisonings, 24 hours a day. Poison control centers also provide poison prevention information to the community and education about recognition and treatment of poison exposures for health care providers. By gathering data about the outcomes of poison exposures, they also identify new or unexpected toxic hazards, allowing for product recalls, reformulations, or repackaging. Their staffs include physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with training in toxicology. There are more than 500 poison control centers in the United States; 65 of them are officially certified and are members of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. All of these provide 24-hour service and can be reached by calling 1-800-222-1222. See the Appendix of Poison Control Centers, which lists the certified ones.

tox·i·no·gen·ic

(tok'si-nō-jen'ik),
Producing a toxin, said of an organism.
Synonym(s): toxigenic
[toxin + G. -gen, producing]

toxigenic

/tox·i·gen·ic/ (tok″sĭ-jen´ik)
1. producing or elaborating toxins.
2. derived from or containing toxins.

toxigenic

(tŏk′sə-jĕn′ĭk)
adj.
Producing poison; toxicogenic.

tox′i·ge·nic′i·ty (-jə-nĭs′ĭ-tē) n.

tox·i·no·gen·ic

(tok'si-nō-jen'ik)
Producing a toxin, said of an organism.
Synonym(s): toxigenic.
[toxin + G. -gen, producing]

toxigenic

caused by or producing toxins.

toxigenic diarrhea
see secretory diarrhea.
References in periodicals archive ?
If ileus is suspected, a rectal swab can be used for toxigenic culture, NAAT, or GDH.
Although cholera is rare among travelers returning to the United States from cholera-affected areas, and cholera is treatable if medical services are readily accessible, certain populations are at higher risk for toxigenic V.
Among the toxigenic fungi, the isolates having prominent flourescence under UV light by Thin Layer Chromatography (Fig.
Mohale S, Medina A and N Magan Effect of Environmental Factors on in vitro and in situ Interactions Between Atoxigenic and Toxigenic A.
difficile isolates, 94 isolates (27 toxigenic isolates out of 30+67 non- toxigenic isolates out of 83) were subjected to PCR.
In the present study, toxin antitoxin neutralization test on the skin of albino guinea pigs and lethal toxicity test I/P in mice were applied using specific antitoxin to detect and identify the toxigenic strains of C.
Molecular evidence of cholera outbreak caused by a toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain in Kelantan, Malaysia.
Several reports have documented poor analytical sensitivity of toxin immunoassays in comparison to toxigenic culture and/or various PCR-based assays.
The gastrointestinal tract has developed an extremely sophisticated ability to distinguish toxigenic metals from minerals, and xenobiotics from endogenously synthesized chemicals.
difficile, which is often preceded by antibiotic use, has been a growing concern in the past decade because of the emergence of increasingly toxigenic strains.
Researchers have identified some risk factors for toxigenic C.