toxic megacolon


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megacolon

 [meg″ah-ko´lon]
dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon.
Megacolon. From McKinney et al., 2000
acquired megacolon colonic enlargement associated with chronic constipation, but with normal ganglion cell innervation.
acute megacolon toxic megacolon.
aganglionic megacolon (congenital megacolon) Hirschsprung's disease.
toxic megacolon acute dilatation of the colon associated with amebic dysentery or ulcerative colitis; called also acute megacolon.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon, seen in fulminating ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

toxic megacolon

Acute megacolon, toxic dilation of colon Gastroenterology A life-threatening complication of GI disease, resulting in transmural inflammation and toxic Sx due to colonic dilation Etiology ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, amebiasis, pseudomembranous colitis, typhoid, bacterial dysentery, Hirschsprung's disease Clinical Abdominal pain, distension, fever, tachycardia, fatigue, dehydration, ↓ bowel sounds, tympany, rebound tenderness, hypotension Contributing factors Laxatives, opiate use, anticholinergics, hypopotassemia Lab Leukocytosis–> 20,000/mm3, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, ↓ K+ Complications Perforation, peritonitis, septicemia Management Resuscitation, metabolic support, correct fluid and electrolyte derangements, corticosteroids, subtotal colectomy and ileostomy, salvage rectal sphincter if possible. Cf Megacolon.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

(tok'sik meg'ă-kō'lŏn)
Acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon, seen in fulminating ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

toxic megacolon

A gaseous ballooning or dilatation of the colon occurring as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The danger is of perforation which carries a high mortality. The condition can often be relieved by turning the patient into the prone position.

Toxic megacolon

Acute enlargement or dilation of the large intestine.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

(tok'sik meg'ă-kō'lŏn)
Acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patients with C difficile colitis and a leukemoid reaction should be monitored for evidence of sepsis and development of toxic megacolon.
The later more severe disease can be complicated by toxic megacolon, requiring removal of the colon, and sometimes results in death.
Complications include perforation of the colon, sepsis, life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon, a lethal condition.
Considerable caution should be advised before OSMOPREP Tablets are used in patients with severe renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, ascites, unstable angina, gastric retention, ileus, acute obstruction or pseudo-obstruction of the bowel, severe chronic constipation, bowel perforation, acute colitis, toxic megacolon, gastric bypass or stapling surgery, or hypomotility syndrome.
VISICOL Tablets are not to be used in patients with congestive heart failure, ascites, unstable angina pectoris, gastric retention, ileus or acute obstruction or pseudo-obstruction, severe chronic constipation, bowel perforation, acute colitis, toxic megacolon or hypomotility syndrome.
glaucoma, paralytic ileus, unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage, severe ulcerative colitis, toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis, myasthenia gravis).
The disease, which can range in severity from mild to severe diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, sepsis, and death, is costing American healthcare institutions up to $51.
TriLyte(R) with flavor packs is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to any of the components and in patients with ileus, gastrointestinal obstruction, gastric retention, bowel perforation, toxic colitis or toxic megacolon.
Severe CDI is frequently accompanied by serious conditions such as hypotension, ileus, toxic megacolon, and perforation.
MOVIPREP([R]) should also be used with caution in patients with severe ulcerative colitis, ileus, gastrointestinal obstruction or perforation, gastric retention, toxic colitis, or toxic megacolon.
1) These patients are at increased risk of additional recurrences, as well as more complicated disease, including toxic megacolon, colon perforation, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome with organ failure leading to colectomy or death.