pumps and a tonoplast
intrinsic protein of vacuolar membranes during the development of pear fruit.
2] of VHA-A were shown in tomato; the subcellular localization indicated that the highest levels of both these isoforms were in the tonoplast
Protective effects of exogenous fatty acids on root tonoplast
function against salt stress in barley seedlings.
Salt tolerance in suspension cultures of sugar beet-induction of Na+/H+ antiport activity at the tonoplast
by growth in salt.
Characterization of Leishmania donovani aquaporins shows presence of subcellular aquaporins similar to tonoplast
intrinsic proteins of plants.
gradient across the tonoplast
and this power is switched with ion transport, especially K, into the vacuole.
3] are described as unspecific and chaotropic and might be partly due to an inhibition of the tonoplast
ATPase which could be affected at concentrations event below 10 mM N[O.
plasma membrane, tonoplast
, chloroplast, mitochondria, in sufficient detail to understand the structural, functional, and regulatory components of each system.
According to their sequence homology and sub-cellular location, plant AQPs could be subdivided in four subgroups: plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs): PIP1, PIP2 and PIP; tonoplast
intrinsic proteins (TIPs), which further subdivided into 5 subgroups: a, b, g, d and e-TIP; nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs); small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs, further subdivided into 2 subgroups: SIP1 and SIP2); GlpF-like intrinsic proteins (GIPs).
Plant peroxidases are found in tonoplast
and plasmalemma, inner and outer side of the cellular wall both in soluble as well as, ionically bound forms (Chen et al.
Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of senescing carnation petals indicated the presence of gel phase lipid in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and tonoplast
(Hopkins et al.
1992) demonstrated that the humic substances affect the activity of microssomal and tonoplast