Background: In vitro experiments have revealed that toll-like receptor
4 (TLR4) pathway is involved in the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) by induction of proinflammatory cytokines.
in invertebrate innate immunity.
The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors
and their adaptors are regulated in macrophages after phagocytosis of lipopolysaccharide-coated titanium particles.
control activation of adaptive immune responses.
(TLR) are present on the surface of platelets in smaller amounts than GPIb-IX-V complex.
TRIF mediates Toll-like receptor
5-induced signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.
Divergent Toll-like receptors
in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): TLR5S, TLR20, TLR21.
But since research shows increased inflammation in obese people, the Toll-like receptor
and monocyte findings may help define individuals at high risk for obesity.
and innate immune responses in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Knowing the toll-like receptors
are major determinants of the body's inflammatory response to viral and bacterial pathogens, we set out to see if these receptors were susceptible to insulin's effect.
So far, ten human Toll-related proteins are characterized, Toll-like receptors
(TLRs) 1 to 10, with human called TLR4 (24), which is LPS's receptor.