Alkaloids make up about 10% of the dried poppy latex of which morphine, codeine, thebaine
and papaverine are the most important with morphine as the principal alkaloid (Van Wyk et al.
The researchers began with three high-morphine varieties of opium poppy and a mutant plant that makes the morphine precursors thebaine
and oripavine but can't make morphine itself.
that will yield economically attractive levels of morphinane alkaloids, particularly thebaine
We confirmed that plants of this species are good sources of thebaine
but, unlike the opium poppy, do not contain morphine or codeine.
somniferum does not possess the biosynthetic capacity to demethylate thebaine
to allow the accumulation of morphine.
has acquired an exclusive license for a novel and highly efficient technology for isolating thebaine
from raw poppy.
2 Hydrocodone 34 102 6-Monoacetylmorphine 42 28 Dihydromorphine 18 Thebaine
5 Meperidine 1 Hydromorphone 16 19 Methamphetamine D-Methamphetamine 100 100 L-Methamphetamine 8 271 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine 135 1513 D-Amphetamine 2 1.
Bhutani says the unit will convert morphine, codeine and thebaine
alkaloids into superior bulk alkaloids and dosage forms that are currently unavailable in India and most other developing nations.
Whether grown or purchased, fresh or dried, these seedpods contain significant quantities of morphine, codeine, and thebaine
, the principal alkaloids found in opium.
5 Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine
derivative is more potent than morphine, pethidine, pentozocine and the duration of analgesia is longer than all.
Like apomorphine, also buprenorphine (a semisynthetic opioid derived from thebaine
, naturally occurring alkaloid of Papaver somniferum, and used as substitution therapy in the treatment of opioid dependence), undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and therefore has very low oral bioavailability (Elkader and Sproule 2005).