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a particular kind of antibody produced in the body in response to the presence of a toxin; see also immunity. adj., adj an´titoxic.
botulism antitoxin an equine antitoxin against the toxins produced by the types A and B and/ or E strains of Clostridium botulinum; administered intravenously in the postexposure prophylaxis and treatment of botulism, other than infant botulism. Generally trivalent (ABE) antitoxin is used.
diphtheria antitoxin equine antitoxin from horses immunized against diphtheria toxin or the toxoid; administered intramuscularly or intravenously in the treatment of suspected cases of diphtheria.
equine antitoxin an antitoxin derived from the blood of healthy horses immunized against a specific bacterial toxin.
antitoxin specific for the toxin of Clostridium tetani.
tetanus antitoxin (TAT)
a tetanus immune serum that neutralizes exotoxins in tetanus infection.
indications This drug is prescribed for short-term immunization against tetanus after possible exposure to the organism and in tetanus treatment.
contraindications This drug is not given if the more effective tetanus immune globulin is available or if there is a known sensitivity to equine serum.
adverse effects Among the most serious adverse effects are allergic reactions and pain and inflammation at the site of injection.
a particular kind of antibody produced in the body in response to the presence of a toxin or toxoid. Most commonly used in the treatment of diseases caused by clostridial toxins, e.g. botulinum and tetanus. See also immunity.
gas gangrene antitoxin
serum containing antitoxic antibodies; prepared from the blood of healthy animals immunized against gas-producing organisms of the genus Clostridium.
preparation from the blood serum or plasma of healthy animals immunized against tetanus toxin. Used for prophylaxis after injury because of its immediate effect. Active immunization is preferred for long-term protection, particularly for many clostridial diseases such as tetanus.
a highly fatal disease of all animal species caused by the neurotoxin of Clostridium tetani. The bacterial spores are deposited in tissue, usually by traumatic injury, retained placenta or endometrial injury and under anaerobic conditions vegetate. Clinical features of the disease are remarkably similar in all species but there are differences in susceptibility to the disease. The muscle spasms cause a stiff gait, rigid posture (sometimes called 'sawhorse stance'), extension or elevation of the tail, protrusion of the third eyelid and trismus (lockjaw). Horses show flaring of the nostrils. In dogs, spasms of facial muscles cause abnormally erect ears and retraction of the lips that resembles the 'risus sardonicus' seen in humans with tetanus. Stimulation precipitates generalized muscle contractions and tetanic spasms or convulsions. The disease can be prevented by immunization with tetanus toxoid or the use of antitoxin, but this is done routinely only in humans and horses.
see tetanus antitoxin.
a loosely defined syndrome of outbreaks of tetanus in young cattle without a wound being found; current practice is to refer to such outbreaks as being caused by the ingestion of pre-formed tetanus toxin.
tetany occurs predominantly in one limb, closest to the site of entry of the organism, but then usually spreads to the opposite limb and then the whole body. Seen in dogs and particularly cats.
see tetanus toxin.