There is limited data on teratogenicity
of metformin, but the risk seems to be low.
The lack of genotoxic potential of codeine as observed in the present study agreed with that of the earlier study carried out in rabbits and rats (11) but differed from another study (12) wherein codeine was reported to produce teratogenicity
Rabbits 100 mg/kg/day No embryo 40 mg/kg/day /fetotoxicity 10 mg/kg/day or teratogenicity
at any level
The team used in ovo chick embryos, an established model for assessing teratogenicity
, to evaluate the effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.
It was approved with a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) that addresses the teratogenicity
of topiramate, which is known to increase the risk of oral clefts at the higher doses used for treating epilepsy, and the possible adverse cardiac effects of phentermine, which increases the pulse rate.
After general information on storage, licensing, prescribing, and other topics, information is given on the safe and appropriate use of these drugs during pregnancy, labor, and the first year of life, including pharmacology, placental transfer and teratogenicity
, the extent to which each drug appears in human milk, and the impact of illness and severe prematurity on drug metabolism and elimination, as well as symptoms associated with overtreatment and the management of toxicity.
The biggest barrier to treating mental illness during pregnancy is fear of fetal harm: teratogenicity
, neonatal complications from drug exposure, and long-term neurodevelopmental effects.
This is of concern, since adverse events from using retinoids are well known in the dermatological community (for example, teratogenicity
and an increased susceptibility of skin to photocarcinogenesis).
As pregnant women are not included in human clinical trials prior to FDA approval, assessment of teratogenicity
relies heavily on animal studies (that cannot give definitive information regarding risk in humans) and post-marketing surveillance.
Includes coverage of emerging science such as stem cell application, toxicoproteomics, metabolomics, phthalates, infertility, teratogenicity
, endocrine disruption, surveillance and regulatory considerations, and risk assessment
No increased risk of teratogenicity
was noted in one study involving 1,230 exposures (J.
But the majority voted against recommending approval of the agent because of concerns over the risk-benefit profile, particularly the potential for teratogenicity
and increases in heart rate associated with treatment.