JFM stakeholders are stressing the need for the transfer of authority over forest lands through establishing tenurial
agreements and custodian rights with local community groups.
security, informed and organized local participation and
The third layer consists of two major chapters and sections of other chapters on social structure; the community, parish, village, family, crime, tenurial
273) A new nationally supported system of mortgage commodification has increased the extent to which "homeowners" now hold in an almost tenurial
relationship to the pension funds and similar institutions that dominate long-term investment.
Marvin considers the complexity of aristocratic relationships in southern France, problems in defining "Occitania," and challenges the notion that familial, tenurial
, and commercial relationships, common goals or even languages provided unity to the people inhabiting this region, when characterising warfare he emphasizes the importance of siege and chevauchee over pitched battles as decisive encounters during the Occitan War--although the latter encompassed some significant political deaths, only four occurred within the confrees of this study.
The topography, geology and general tenurial
history are clearly stated, and the development of the earldom (later duchy) of Cornwall is recounted.
Among the different tenurial
classes, the distribution of farm area among farms of various sizes has been relatively more unequal under owner-operated farms.
The working hypotheses are: (1) The government had complete disregard of the existing tenurial
arrangements that governed resource use arrangements and, hence, caused serious social conflict between the state and forest communities; (2) Further, the process of government control over forests was lopsided, which created a discordant structure of property rights; (3) Government was pitted against the community and social recognition of state property was absent, which made forest management an impossible task; (4) Massive deforestation on part of the government exacerbated the dwindling state of public forests; (5) Management failures placed forest contractors in a comfortable alliance with the FD causing excessive felling.
There is little comparison with other Welsh or English mining landscapes, and no broader academic discussion of issues such as Welsh and English cultural influences (a crying omission in Flintshire, where the political and cultural history is so complex), the archaeological visibility of mining law and other social and tenurial
factors (as Martin Roe is demonstrating in Yorkshire, for example), or the role of mining in the broader social, settlement and agricultural archaeology of the study areas.
In Barnes's words, "the soil was granted under the time-honored tenurial
conditions of landholding in England.
e, sex, age, literacy and employment; household characteristics including family size, number of earners, farm status, ownership of housing unit, electricity connection, land and livestock ownership, tenurial
status, access to safety nets (Zakat and remittances domestic and overseas) and credit; and community variables i.
Some townships have regular tenurial
cycles of strips that likely are to be pre-Conquest but not necessarily dating to the time of village nucleation.