Among then, the chloroform fraction (PaI-C, 200 [micro]g/ml) was found to be the most active, causing 100% mortality, significant decrease in motor activity, and tegumental alterations on adult worms (Table 1).
Cardamonin exhibited the most pronounced activity, causing 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction in motor activity of all adult worms of S.
Morphological studies revealed progressive damages and prominent alterations of the tegumental surfaces, in which tubercles appeared collapsed and disrupted (Fig.
Cardamonin caused disintegration of the tegumental surface in a dose-dependent manner (Fig.
In this manner, these tegumental enzymes help impair host immune defenses and promote parasite survival.
Schistosoma mansoni: In vitro schistosomicidal activity and tegumental alterations induced by piplartine on schistosomula.
Scanning electron microscopy of tegumental surfaces of Schistosoma margrebowiei LeRoux, 1933.
Scanning electron microscopy of the tegumental surfaces.
Scanning electron microscopy of the tegumental surface of adult Haplorchis pumilio (Looss).
General aspect showing the hymenopteriform morphology, with a detail of the ventrally curved body [1a (under SEM), the body is broadest around the middle and tapers gradually to the end], segmentation (1b') and colour (1b), pleural lobes [1c (under SEM), arrow], tegumental differentiations [1d (under SEM), 1d' (under SEM) (detail), 1e (under SEM) (on dorsum of prothorax), 1e' (under SEM) (on dorsum of prothorax, detail), and anal segment (1f, arrow)].
Synergus filicornis: immature larva: General aspect (a), tegumental differentiation (b, under SEM), spiracle (c), and head (d) [antennal orbits (ao), maxillary (mp) and labial palpi (lp), sensillum (s)].
dryas (species whose mature larvae have been adequately described) lie in the presence/absence, type, number and arrangements of tegumental
differentiations: spinules, setae, and sensilla.