Mechanisms involved in CEACAM1 and MITF correlation in melanoma may involve sex determining region Y [SRY] related HMG-box 9 (SOX9); SOX9 is a transcription factor involved in chondrogenesis and sex determination in embryo ; its function in normal melanocytes is upregulation of melanin synthesis in melanocytic cells after ultraviolet B (shortwave) rays (UVB) exposure by increasing MITF, dopachrome tautomerase
(tyrosine-related protein 2), and tyrosinase expression , while increased expression of SOX9 in melanoma inhibits tumor cell proliferation by binding p21 directly or via MITF [48, 49].
Lashuel, An Integrative in Silico Methodology for the Identification of Modulators of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Tautomerase
Both TYRP-1 and TYRP-2 (also called DOPAchrome tautomerase
, DCT) are involved in the downstream reactions of the melanogenic pathway, aMelanocyte stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), a physiological ligand that binds and acts on the G protein-coupled melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), potently activates the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) to increase the expression of tyrosinase and the melanogenic enzymes TYRP-1 and TYRP-2, which ultimately induce melanin synthesis (Costin and Hearing, 2007; Park et al.
The ink gland has been also shown to contain a variety of melanogenic enzymes as tyrosinase, dopachrome tautomerase
, and peroxidase .
The melanogenesis pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) includes a few expressed genes which containing tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and dopachrome tautomerase
Plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds affect MIF tautomerase
Further, included in the concept that portrayed "tyrosine metabolism and melanin biosynthesis" were multiple protein-protein complexes involving the proteins Dopachrome tautomerase
, Tyrosinase and Tyrosinase-related protein 1, all of which are copper binding proteins and play a critical role in the above bioprocess.
MIF, as an essential player in the onset-regulation of systemic vasoplegia, plays roles in changing vessel tone with or without the involvement of its tautomerase action in septic patients or models.
We found that therapeutic MIF neutralization with MIF tautomerase inhibitor ISO-1 and MIF antibody reversed the cardiovascular dysfunction in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, and correspondingly the survival rate got some improvement (19).
For example, Sox10 directly regulates expression of dopachrome tautomerase
(Dct/Trp2) during melanocyte differentiation (Potterf et al.
136) The same can be said for the determination of tyrosinaserelated protein-1 (TRP-1), recognized by the commercially available antibody MEL-5, and the tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2), which acts as dopachrome tautomerase
Among them the enzymatic melanosomal proteins tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 [L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) chrome tautomerase
(DCT)] play an important role (Kobayashi et al.