starch

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starch

 [starch]
1. any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula, (C6H10O5)n; it is the chief storage form of carbohydrates in plants.
2. granular material separated from mature corn (Zea mays), wheat, or potatoes; used as a dusting powder and pharmaceutic aid.

starch

(starch),
A high molecular weight polysaccharide made up of d-glucose residues consisting of 20% amylose and 80% amylopectin. amylose contains α-1,4 linkages, differing from cellulose in the presence of α- rather than β-glucoside linkages, and amylopectin contains additional α-1,6 linkages; both amylose and amylopectin exist in most most plant tissues. Starch is converted into dextrin when subject to the action of dry heat, and into dextrin and d-glucose by amylases and glucoamylases in saliva and pancreatic juice; used as a dusting powder, an emollient, and an ingredient in medicinal tablets; is an important raw material for the manufacture of alcohol, acetone, n-butanol, lactic acid, citric acid, glycerine, and gluconic acid by fermentation; is the chief storage carbohydrate in most higher plants.
Synonym(s): amylum
[A.S. stearc, strong]

starch

(stahrch)
1. any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula, (C6H10O5)n ; it is the chief storage form of carbohydrates in plants.
2. granules separated from mature corn, wheat, or potatoes; used as a dusting powder and pharmaceutic aid.

starch

(stärch)
n.
1. A naturally abundant nutrient carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, found chiefly in the seeds, fruits, tubers, roots, and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice, and varying widely in appearance according to source but commonly prepared as a white amorphous tasteless powder.
2. starches Foods having a high content of starch, as rice, breads, and potatoes.

starch

Etymology: AS, stearc, strong
a polysaccharide composed of long chains of glucose subunits. It is the principal molecule used for the storage of energy in plants. See also carbohydrate, glucose, glycogen.

starch

(stahrch)
A high molecular weight polysaccharide built up of d-glucose residues in α-1,4 linkage, differing from cellulose in the presence of α- rather than β-glucoside linkages, which exists in most plant tissues; converted into dextrin when subjected to the action of dry heat, and into dextrin and d-glucose by amylases and glucoamylases in saliva and pancreatic juice; used as a dusting powder, an emollient, and an ingredient in medicinal tablets; chief storage carbohydrate in most higher plants.
[A.S. stearc, strong]

starch

A complex polysaccharide carbohydrate consisting of chains of linked glucose molecules. Amylose is a chain of 200 to 500 glucose units. Amylopectin consists of 20 cross-linked glucose molecules. Most natural starches are a mixture of these two. Starch, in the form of potatoes, rice and cereals forms an important part of the average diet and about 70% of the world's food.

starch

a polysaccharide carbohydrate consisting of GLUCOSE units arranged in two forms, amylose and amylopectin. Upon heating, the two components are separated, with amylose giving a purplish/blue colour when iodine is added and amylopectin giving a black colour, this forming the standard test for starch. Starch is the principal storage compound of plants as it is compact and non-osmotic. see DEXTRIN.

starch

polysaccharide; used as dusting powder base Table 1
Table 1: Vehicles used to carry active ingredients for topical use in skin conditions
Vehicle typeComment
ApplicationsViscous solutions, emulsions or suspensions for application to the skin or nails
CollodionsClear paints carrying an active ingredient applied to the skin and left to dry to a flexible film (e.g. ichthammol in collodion)
CreamsEmulsions of oil and water generally well absorbed into the skin surface; creams are less greasy and easier to apply than ointments
GelsActive ingredients within a suitable hydrophilic or hydrophobic base; they have a high water content
LotionsA cooling preparation for external application, to the skin, formed as a liquid suspension often in an industrial methylated spirit or alcohol base
A shake lotion contains an insoluble powder in a liquid that must be shaken before use to disperse the powder evenly throughout the liquid medium, e.g. calamine lotion
OintmentsGreasy preparations that are usually insoluble in water; a salve or unguent; a semisolid preparation containing a medicinal agent in a fatty or waxy base, intended for topical application; the greasy base of an ointment (usually formulated from soft paraffin, or a combination of soft and hard paraffin) acts as an occlusive medium and makes it especially suitable for use on dry or anhydrous skin
Water-soluble ointments are based on macrogols and can be washed off
PastesStiff preparations containing a high proportion of fine solids, such as zinc oxide and starch; they are less occlusive than ointments and can be used to protect lichenified, inflamed or excoriated skin (e.g. in eczema)
Dusting powdersFine powders, e.g. talc, applied to apposing skin surfaces; they should not be used on moist or weeping surfaces

starch

(stahrch)
High molecular weight polysaccharide made up of d-glucose residues consisting of 20% amylose and 80% amylopectin.
Synonym(s): amylum.
[A.S. stearc, strong]

starch,

n the principal molecule used for the storage of food in plants. Starch is a polysaccharide and is composed of long chains of glucose subunits.
starch amylopectin
n a component of starch that consists of glucose residues arranged in a branched chain.
starch amylose
n a component of starch that consists of glucose residues arranged in a straight chain.

starch

1. any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula, (C6H10O5)n; it is the chief storage form of carbohydrates in plants.
2. granular material separated from mature grain of Zea mays (Indian corn, or maize); used as a dusting powder and tablet disintegrant in pharmaceuticals.

starch blockers
inhibitors of alpha-amylase, used to decrease starch digestion and limit energy intake from starch.
starch digestion test, starch tolerance test
a test to assess the ability of the intestine to digest and absorb a polysaccharide. Efficiency measured by the rise in blood glucose after oral administration of starch to an animal that has been fasted.
starch equivalent
an outmoded way of estimating and expressing the energy value of a feed. Replaced now by metabolizable energy.
starch inhalation
can occur in pigs in a poorly ventilated environment and when the feed is fed dry. Causes foreign body pneumonia.
starch-iodine complex
is a deep blue color and this is used as an indicator of the amount of starch in a solution.
starch tolerance test
see starch digestion test (above).