AS patients with no syndesmophyte
formation show significantly higher functional DKK-1 levels, suggesting that blunted Wnt signaling suppresses new bone formation and consequently syndesmophyte
growth and spinal ankylosis.
However, paradoxically, in PsA, patients may also display periarticular periostitis, and in AS and to a lesser extent PsA, prominent syndesmophyte
formation in the spine, leading to bridging ankylosis in its most severe form.
Paravertebral ossifications in SAPHO may simulate syndesmophyte
Regular use of NSAIDs has been shown to prevent syndesmophyte
These were identified as male sex, age, low body mass index (BMI), osteoporosis, disease duration, degree of syndesmophyte
formation, peripheral joint involvement, increased spinal motion restriction, and increased occiput-to-wall distance.
Anteroposterior pelvis radiographs showed grade III bilateral sacroiliitis, and lateral lumbar radiographs revealed a decrease in lordosis, squaring of the vertebral bodies, and syndesmophyte
Anterior and posterior syndesmophyte
bridging with calcification of the spinal ligaments was observed on his thoracic spine radiographs.
Although mild and severe diseases were defined according to various criteria, it seems likely that syndesmophyte
formation, facet joint fusion and ligament ossification explain the observed discrepancy in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in patients with severe diseases (4, 19, 21, 22).
However, a normal sacroiliac joint MRI and lack of a typical syndesmophyte
appearance made the AS diagnosis unlikely.
There is abnormal adhesion and rigidity in the intervertebral joints resulting in a bamboo spine that develops as the outer fibres of the fibrous ring of the intervertebral disc ossify which results in the formation of marginal syndesmophytes
between adjoining vertebrae.
Humans walk upright, and bony proliferations in the form of osteophytes and syndesmophytes
may be a response-to-stress strategy of the joints.