The extensive secretory activity of syncytiotrophoblasts
, the outer trophoblast layer responsible for nutrient exchange, renders them vulnerable to ER stress.
BeWo cells have a high degree of similarity to the villous trophoblast and can, for example, be induced to fuse and form syncytiotrophoblasts
that behave like the human syncytium (Nampoothiri et al.
Hypoxia favours necrotic versus apoptotic shedding of placental syncytiotrophoblast
into the maternal circulation.
In the present study the enzyme was chiefly localised in syncytiotrophoblast
of normal placental villi.
Oxidative stress causes injury to chorionic villi, reducing the functional mass of the syncytiotrophoblast
and limiting the capacity of the villi to mediate nutrient transport, thus contributing to IUGR induction (Scifres and Nelson 2009).
recently showed that human syncytiotrophoblast
tissue is refractory to chikungunya infection (23).
In rodents, maternal blood and fetal blood vessels are primarily separated by two syncytiotrophoblast
layers, but in humans, only a syncytiotrophoblast
monolayer separates fetal blood vessels from maternal blood (Malassine et al.
Forming a specialized epithelial surface within the placenta, fetal syncytiotrophoblast
cells directly contact maternal blood for nutrient exchange.
3) The differentiated category is further subdivided as intratubular classic seminoma, intratubular spermatocytic seminoma, intratubular embryonal carcinoma, intratubular yolk sac tumor, and intratubular syncytiotrophoblast
SP1 is synthesized by the syncytiotrophoblast
and secreted into the maternal circulation, where the concentration increases continuously during pregnancy.
beta]-hCG release is a marker of continuous endocrine activity of the syncytiotrophoblast
, the epithelial layer of chorionic villi forming the placental barrier (Miller et al.
In detail, the cellular barrier between the maternal and the fetal blood is formed by the syncytiotrophoblast
layer, which faces the maternal environment, and the endothelial cell layer of the fetal microcapillaries.