tumour necrosis factor-a characterizes failing first trimester pregnancies in a subgroup of recurrent miscarriage patients.
64,81) The primary potential routes of fetal infections in general include maternal viremia with transfer from maternal blood across the syncytiotrophoblast
to fetal vessels in the placenta or direct transfer at the implantation site via extravillous trophoblasts, and ascending infection from the genitourinary tract with transfer across the fetal membranes.
143) Importantly, syncytin-A knockout mice exhibit mid-fetal lethality, presumably due to a functional abnormality of one of the two syncytiotrophoblast
layers, and double knockout of both syncytin-A and -B was shown to lead to a more severe phenotype and early embryonic lethality, demonstrating that they are clearly essential for syncytiotrophoblast
cell formation in vivo, as expected.
They are coated with one layer of syncytiotrophoblast
The extensive secretory activity of syncytiotrophoblasts
, the outer trophoblast layer responsible for nutrient exchange, renders them vulnerable to ER stress.
The trophoblast with maternal origin differentiates into cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast
is a specialized multinuclear epithelial tissue that functions as a transporting epithelium and endocrine/paracrine organ, delivering nutrients to the fetus and producing hormones that sustain pregnancy .
We found the pronounced changes to cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast
in the beams of the labyrinthic zone.
1997) and is present in cytoplasm and membrane of syncytiotrophoblast
since 8th gestation week (Georgieff et al.
It is well known that maternal IgG antibodies are large hydrophilic proteins of more than 100 kDa and cannot cross the placenta by simple diffusion, but are actively transported via Fc receptors on the syncytiotrophoblast
Ganapathy, "Expression of a cocaine-sensitive norepinephrine transporter in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast
," Biochemistry, vol.
Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces microfilament depletion in human placenta syncytiotrophoblast