superantigen

(redirected from Superantigens)

superantigen

 [soo″per-an´tĭ-jen]
any of a group of powerful antigens occurring in various bacteria and viruses that bind outside of the normal T cell receptor site and are able to react with multiple T cell receptor molecules, thus activating T cells nonspecifically. Included are staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxins causing toxic shock syndrome and exfoliative dermatitis.

su·per·an·ti·gen

(sū'pĕr-an'ti-jen),
An antigen that interacts with the T-cell receptor in a domain outside the antigen recognition site. This interaction induces the activation of larger numbers of T cells than are induced by antigens that are presented in the antigen recognition site leading to the release of numerous cytokines. A single superantigen may potentially activate as much as 15% of the lymphocytic repertoire.
See also: antigen.

superantigen

/su·per·an·ti·gen/ (-an´tĭ-jen) any of a group of powerful antigens occurring in various bacteria and viruses that binds outside of the normal T cell receptor site, reacting with multiple T cell receptor molecules and activating T cells nonspecifically.

superantigen

one of a family of related substances, including staphylococcal and streptococcal exotoxins, that can short-circuit the normal sequence of events leading to activation of helper T cells. Superantigens initiate an uncontrolled proliferation of T cells but do not require processing and presentation by macrophages. The result is either an acute and potentially life-threatening disease, such as toxic shock syndrome, or a chronic inflammatory process, such as rheumatic fever.

superantigen

One of a class of molecules that react with a substantial proportion of the whole population of T cells in the body. They include Staphylococcus aureus ENTEROTOXINS. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a powerful T-cell mitogen and can give rise to the release of large quantities of CYTOKINES and LEUKOTRIENES. This is believed to be one of the bases of the TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME.

superantigen

molecules that are potent T lymphocyte mitogens and simultaneously bind to class II MHC molecules. They are often associated with staphylococcal products and are involved in enterotoxemias and toxic shock syndrome in humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
The invention relates to a use of bacterial superantigens for the prevention of allergy in children as well as a method for the prevention of inflammatory disorders.
The study, published recently in the journal mBio, shows that superantigens interact with fat cells and the immune system to cause chronic systemic inflammation, and this inflammation leads to insulin resistance and other symptoms characteristic of type 2 diabetes.
In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that streptococcal M proteins and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins act as superantigens, which cause a marked expansion of both CD4+, and CD8+ T cells.
Invasive GAS strains also produce increased levels of toxins, including some that destroy immune cells, and superantigens (e.
The new UI study shows that superantigens from staph bacteria trigger fat cells to produce pro-inflammatory molecules.
The topics include the scientific and ethical importance of animal models in biodefense research, characterizing new and advancing existing animal models of Bacillus anthracis infection, alphaviruses, animal models for viral hemorrhagic fevers, and in vitro and in vivo assays for staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens.
The archaea and viroid induced chronic immune activation and generation of superantigens can lead on to autoimmune disease.
Researchers found 95% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria - including MRSA - produce the poison, which belongs to a family of toxins known as superantigens.
Taskapan MO, Kumar P: Role of staphylococcal superantigens in atopic dermatitis: from colonization to inflammation.
The bacterium interferes in the inflammatory process of atopic dermatitis in various ways, among which the ability to release superantigens in a high percentage of clinical isolates is of great importance.
Is psoriasis induced by streptococcal superantigens and maintained by M-protein specific T cells that cross react with keratin.