One month later, the patient returned with similar substernal
The incidence of various symptoms were dysphagia 100%, regurgitation 45%, epigastric or substernal
pain 35%, weight loss 25% and cough in 12% cases, which are comparable with study of Mazzadi SA  (2004) in which dysphagia (100%), regurgitation (40%) and epigastric pain (30%).
The child was completely awake without any respiratory difficulty; however, he showed minimal substernal
retraction without any motor block.
Sternotomy for substernal
goiter: retrospective study of 52 operations.
18) Other authors have demonstrated similar findings, indicating that a thyroid mass of larger than 5 cm is a predictor of worsening postoperative voice outcomes, (19) and up to 17% of substernal
goiters are associated with some degree of recurrent nerve injury.
We describe our technique for the safe resection of substernal
Typical chest pain was defined as having (1) substernal
chest pain or discomfort, which was (2) provoked by exertion or emotional stress and (3) relieved by rest and/or nitroglycerin.
The patient presented eight days after the index hospitalization with severe, crushing, substernal
In our department, CT scan was used to observe suspicious invasion of the surrounding tissues or substernal
Two heavy "guardian suture" were applied post operatively between the submental and substernal
skin to avoid the extension of neck.
Pain may refer to the scapula or substernal
These may be useful in patients with recurrent goiter, Graves' disease, substernal
goiter, patients on anticoagulants2,5,6,11-13.