substance withdrawal

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1. a pathological retreat from interpersonal contact and social involvement, as may occur in avoidant, schizoid, or schizotypal personality disorders.
2. the removal of something.
3. a substance-specific substance-induced disorder that follows the cessation of use or reduction in intake of a psychoactive substance that had been regularly used to induce a state of intoxication. Specific withdrawal syndromes include those for alcohol, amphetamines or similarly acting sympathomimetics, cocaine, nicotine, opioids, and sedatives, hypnotics, or antianxiety agents. Called also abstinence syndrome, withdrawal symptoms, and withdrawal syndrome.

The usual reactions to alcohol withdrawal are anxiety, weakness, gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea and vomiting, tremor, fever, rapid heartbeat, convulsions, and delirium (see also delirium tremens). Similar effects are produced by withdrawal of barbiturates and in this case convulsions occur frequently, often followed by psychosis with hallucinations. Treatment of withdrawal consists of providing a substitute drug such as a mild sedative, along with treatment of the symptoms as needed. Parenteral fluids are often required.
substance withdrawal withdrawal (def. 3).
withdrawal syndrome former name for withdrawal (def. 3).
thought withdrawal the delusion that someone or something is removing thoughts from one's mind.

sub·stance with·draw·al

(sŭbstăns with-drawăl)
Physiologic and psychological readjustments made during discontinuation of use of a substance previously employed to induce intoxication.
References in periodicals archive ?
An imbalance between the inhibitory and excitatory activity in the brain, such as occurs during substance withdrawal, can change activity in the dopamine system, as well as in other neuronal circuits, triggering undesirable symptoms and behaviors.
In addition, in a substance-abuse population, seizures can be the result of substance withdrawal.

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