Abdel-Basset & Fayza (2004) studied karyotype characteristics, such as chromosome size and variable morphology, including metacentric, submetacentric
, and acrocentric chromosomes, and reported chromosome length ranging from 1.
The 30 populations of maize landraces from southwest China had a standard karyotype consisting of 2n = 20 chromosomes with three metacentric, six submetacentric
, and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs.
crassifolia have secondary constrictions on the long arm of the submetacentric
(sm) and subtelocentric (t) chromosome pairs.
The complement includes five pairs of metacentric (the last one is the smallest element in the set), seven pairs of submetacentric
(the first two are the largest elements in the set), a large and a medium-sized subtelocentric pairs and nine pairs of small acrocentric autosomes.
NORs were present in the short arm of only one submetacentric
pair, with eventual size polymorphism between the homologous (Figure 3a-c).
Of the studied accessions, 11 presented the karyotypic formula 11M + 1SM (Figure 2), in which chromosome 12 was classified as submetacentric
Since there are more metacentric than submetacentric
chromosomes in this species, C.
striatus can be distinguished by the presence of additional pericentromeric bands and a telomeric marking on the short arm of the submetacentric
A karyotype composed by 2n = 48 chromosomes with occurrence of metacentric and submetacentric
chromosomes, as observed in Geophagus cf.
The haploid complement consists of one large metacentric and one medium size metacentric element and a graded series of smaller meta-centric and submetacentric
Low dose of cadmium (1mg/kg/day) for 30 days resulted in chromosomal aberrations as manifested by aneuploidy, breaks, gaps, centromeric fusion resulting in formation of submetacentric
and metacentric chromosomes.
All the autosomes are biarmed (8 metacentric, m; and 2 submetacentric
pairs, sm), meanwhile the X and Y are acrocentrics (a).