subcutaneous injection


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Related to subcutaneous injection: intramuscular injection, intradermal injection, intravenous injection

injection

 [in-jek´shun]
2. the forcing of a liquid into a part, as into the subcutaneous tissues, the vascular tree, or an organ.
3. a substance so forced or administered; in pharmacy, a solution of a medicament suitable for injection.

Immunizing substances, or inoculations, are generally given by injection. Some medicines cannot be given by mouth because chemical action of the enzymes and digestive fluids would change or reduce their effectiveness, or because they would be removed from the body too quickly to have any effect. Occasionally a medication is injected so that it will act more quickly. In addition to the most common types of injections described below, injections are sometimes made into arteries, bone marrow, the spine, the sternum, the pleural space of the chest region, the peritoneal cavity, and joint spaces. In sudden heart failure, heart-stimulating drugs may be injected directly into the heart (intracardiac injection).
Sites for injections. A, subcutaneous injection sites. B, intramuscular injection site for children in the vastus lateralis muscle. C, D, and E, intramuscular injection sites for adults: C, deltoid muscle injection site. D, injection site in the buttock (dorsogluteal site). E, injection site in the anterolateral thigh (ventrogluteal site).
hypodermic injection subcutaneous injection.
intracutaneous injection intradermal injection.
intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) a micromanipulation technique used in male factor infertility; a single spermatocyte is inserted into an oocyte by micropuncture.
intradermal injection injection of small amounts of material into the corium or substance of the skin, done in diagnostic procedures and in administration of regional anesthetics, as well as in treatment procedures. In certain allergy tests, the allergen is injected intracutaneously. These injections are given in an area where the skin and hair are sparse, usually on the inner part of the forearm. A 25-gauge needle, about 1 cm long, is usually used and is inserted at a 10- to 15-degree angle to the skin.
intramuscular injection injection into the substance of a muscle, usually the muscle of the upper arm, thigh, or buttock. Intramuscular injections are given when the substance is to be absorbed quickly. They should be given with extreme care, especially in the buttock, because the sciatic nerve may be injured or a large blood vessel may be entered if the injection is not made correctly into the upper, outer quadrant of the buttock. The deltoid muscle at the shoulder is also used, but less commonly than the gluteus muscle of the buttock; care must be taken to insert the needle in the center, 2 cm below the acromion.

Injections into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh are considered the safest because there is less danger of damage to a major blood vessel or nerve. The area permits multiple injections, is more accessible, and is easier to stabilize, particularly in pediatric patients or others who are restless and uncooperative. The vastus lateralis muscle is located by identifying the trochanter and the side of the knee cap and then drawing a visual line between the two. The distance is then divided into thirds and the needle inserted into the area identified as the middle third.

The needle should be long enough to insure that the medication is injected deep into the muscle tissue. The gauge of the needle depends on the viscosity of the fluid being injected. As a general rule, not more than 5 ml is given in an intramuscular injection for an adult. The maximum for an infant is 0.5 ml, and the injection is made into the vastus lateralis muscle. The needle is inserted at a 90-degree angle to the skin. When the gluteus maximus muscle is the site chosen for the injection, the patient should be in a prone position with the toes turned in if possible. This position relaxes the muscle and makes the injection less painful.
intrathecal injection injection of a substance through the theca of the spinal cord into the subarachnoid space. Patients receiving intrathecal chemotherapy for metastatic malignancy of the central nervous system should maintain a flat or Trendelenburg position for one hour after treatment to achieve optimum distribution of the drug.
intravenous injection an injection made into a vein. Intravenous injections are used when rapid absorption is called for, when fluid cannot be taken by mouth, or when the substance to be administered is too irritating to be injected into the skin or muscles. In certain diagnostic tests and x-ray examinations a drug or dye may be administered intravenously. (See also intravenous infusion.)
jet injection injection of a drug in solution through the intact skin by an extremely fine jet of the solution under high pressure.
subcutaneous injection injection made into the subcutaneous tissues. Although usually fluid medications are injected, occasionally solid materials such as steroid hormones may be injected in small, slowly absorbed pellets to prolong their effect. Subcutaneous injections may be given wherever there is subcutaneous tissue, usually in the upper outer arm or thigh. A 25-gauge needle about 2 cm long is usually used, held at a 45-degree angle to the skin, and the amount injected should not exceed 2 ml in an adult. Subcutaneous insulin injections may be given at a 90-degree angle with an insulin syringe. Called also hypodermic injection.
Angle of needle insertion for administering a subcutaneous injection. From Lammon et al., 1995.
Z-track injection see z-track injection.

subcutaneous injection

the introduction of a hypodermic needle into the subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin, usually on the upper arm, thigh, or abdomen. A 24- or 27-gauge needle 2 cm long is used. The drug is prepared and drawn into the syringe. The cleansed area of skin is held by the thumb and forefinger to tense and steady the injection site. The needle is inserted at an angle of 45 to 90 degrees, piercing the skin quickly and advancing steadily to minimize the pain. The barrel or plunger is withdrawn slightly to ascertain whether the syringe of the needle has inadvertently entered a blood vessel. If no blood is aspirated, the drug is injected slowly, the needle is withdrawn, and the skin is massaged gently (unless contraindicated) with a sterile alcohol sponge. Certain drugs that are extremely irritating to the skin are injected into the deep subcutaneous tissues by using a variation of the technique. The skin tissue overlying the injection site is grasped with the thumb and forefinger but elevated in a roll, rather than tensed and flattened. The angle of injection may be as great as 90 degrees to the skin. Heparin, insulin, and emetine are injected in this way. If subcutaneous injections are repeated, each is performed at least 5 cm from the previous site. A diagram of a plan for the rotation of injection sites helps to prevent overuse of one area of skin.

sub·cu·ta·ne·ous in·jec·tion

(sŭb'kyū-tā'nē-ŭs in-jek'shŭn)
Injection of fluid into loose connective tissue below the dermis. Absorption is slower than that of intramuscular injection. Common sites include outer posterior side of arm and abdomen. Usually only 0.5-1 mL fluid is given by this method.
Enlarge picture
SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION

subcutaneous injection

Injection beneath the skin. Typical sites include the abdomen, upper or outer arm, and the thigh.
See: illustration
See also: injection

injection

1. the forcing of a liquid into a part, as into the subcutaneous tissues, the vascular tree, or an organ.
2. a substance so forced or administered; in pharmacy, a solution of a medicament suitable for injection.
3. congestion.
4. immunizing substances, or inoculations, are generally given by injection. When a patient is unconscious, injection may be the only means of administering medication, and in some cases nourishment. Some medicines cannot be given by mouth because chemical action of the digestive juices or of hepatic enzymes would change or reduce their effectiveness, or because they would be removed from the body too quickly to have any effect. Certain potent medicines must be injected because they would irritate body tissues if administered any other way. A medication may be injected so that it will act more quickly.
In addition to the most common types of injections described below, injections are sometimes made under the conjunctiva, into arteries, bone marrow, the spine, the sternum, the pleural space of the chest region, the peritoneal cavity and joint spaces.

injection collar
a collar carrying an injection device which can be triggered from a remote site.
epidural injection
hypodermic injection
subcutaneous injection.
intradermal injection, intracutaneous injection
injection of small amounts of material into the corium or substance of the skin. This method is used in diagnostic procedures and in administration of regional anesthetics, as well as in treatment procedures. In certain allergy tests, the allergen is injected intracutaneously. These injections are given in an area where the skin and hair are sparse, usually on the inner part of the thigh in dogs or the caudal fold in cows. A small-gauge needle is recommended and it is inserted at a 10- to 15-degree angle to the skin.
intramuscular injection
injection into the substance of a muscle, usually the thigh or pectoral muscle, or the muscle of the neck or rump. Intramuscular injections are given when the substance is to be absorbed quickly. They should be given with extreme care, especially in the thigh, because the sciatic nerve may be injured or a large blood vessel may be entered if the injection is made without drawing back on the syringe first.
intraperitoneal injection
liquid injection, usually of antibacterial agent, rarely anesthetic or euthanatizing agents, administered to obtain systemic blood levels of the agent; faster than subcutaneous or intramuscular injection and used when veins not accessible. The needle is introduced into the upper flank and the syringe plunger withdrawn to ensure that intestine has not been penetrated. The injected solution should run freely.
intratesticular injection
a method of administering a general anesthetic agent to boars for castration.
intravenous injection
an injection made into a vein. Intravenous injections are used when rapid absorption is called for, when fluid cannot be taken by mouth, or when the substance to be administered is too irritating to be injected into the skin or muscles. In certain diagnostic tests and x-ray examinations, a drug or dye may be administered intravenously. Blood transfusions also are given by this route. See also intravenous infusion.
subarachnoid injection
the risk of injection is greatest at the atlanto-occipital space where the vertebral venous plexus is most likely to be lacerated.
subcutaneous injection
injection made into the subcutaneous tissues; called also hypodermic injection. Although usually fluid medications are injected, occasionally solid materials, such as steroid hormones, are administered subcutaneously in small, slowly absorbed pellets to prolong their effect. Subcutaneous injections may be given wherever there is subcutaneous tissue, usually in the loose skin on the side of the chest or in the flank. The amount injected should not exceed 2 ml for cats and small dogs, 5 ml for large dogs and 20 ml for horses. Cows are often given 200 ml because of their very loose skin. The needle is held at a 45-degree angle to the skin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Group D: PEGASYS 180mcg as a subcutaneous injection every week + COPEGUS 1000-1200mg daily (standard of care group) for 4 weeks
PEGASYS is dosed at 180mcg as a subcutaneous injection taken once a week.
Abnormal serum levels suggest that there is some lymphatic and vascular migration following subcutaneous injection (Soo et al.
Tight glucose control generally requires at least three daily subcutaneous injections of shortacting insulin at meal times, followed by a dose of long-acting insulin at night.
Imitrex is administered by subcutaneous injection and is packaged with a unique push-button autoinjector for convenient self-administration.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were measured for growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) using samples taken following the first and third subcutaneous injections.
Others prefer the more frequent and typically less painful subcutaneous injections.
The RAI Manual says that "injections" include subcutaneous, intramuscular or intradermal injections, but I am hearing that subcutaneous injections are not induded.
This new needle safety device, available for 25g, 26g or 27g needles, is ideal for intradermal and subcutaneous injections as it provides complete rotation of the safety device, enabling clinicians to administer subcutaneous injections at a low angle.
Patients were administered subcutaneous injections of 0.
For six months, 12 of the men gave themselves subcutaneous injections of the synthetic hormone three times a week, while nine controls received neither treatment nor placebo.

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