streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins

streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins

The preferred name for those toxic chemicals released by Group A streptococci that were formerly known as erythrogenic toxins. They are responsible for the rash children experience with scarlet fever and for many of the septic manifestations of toxic shock syndrome.
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In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that streptococcal M proteins and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins act as superantigens, which cause a marked expansion of both CD4+, and CD8+ T cells.
This pathogen also causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, a severe response to streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (Spe proteins), which trigger overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, leading to tissue damage, organ failure, and shock (3,4).
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) induce fever (and rash in scarlet fever) and strongly activate the immune system.
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins also play a major role in the pathogenesis of GAS infections by acting as superantigens.
Immunological and biochemical characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins I and J (SPE-I and SPE-J) from Streptococcus pyogenes.
Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin (SME) Z-1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE)-J were identified in one patient with peritonitis who recovered after 2 weeks in intensive care.
Several studies described the potential involvement of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) A in invasive streptococcal disease (2,19,22,23), while others reported an association with SPE-C (24,25).
These stable, secreted toxins of 22 kDa to 30 kDa include staphylococcal enterotoxins serotypes A-E, G, and H; group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins serotypes A-C and F; group A streptococcal superantigen; and staphylococcal TSST-1, which we discuss below.

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