An organized system of instruction.
Exercise training for aerobic conditioning. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that healthy people exercise 3 to 5 times a week for 30 to 60 min at a rate of at least 64% of their maximum heart rate.
A type of behavior therapy in which the patient is taught to respond in a more positive and assertive manner to the normal stimuli encountered in daily activities. The goal is to be able to express one's true feelings, positive or negative.
1. The physical and mental conditioning program used by athletes to increase their proficiency in sports.
2. Performing the tasks that an athletic trainer is prepared to do. Athletic training is practiced by athletic trainers, health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and participation of patients and clients. Athletic training encompasses the prevention, diagnosis, and intervention of emergency, acute, and chronic medical conditions involving impairment, functional limitations, and disabilities. See: athletic trainer
auditory integration training
A treatment for autism spectrum disorders, dyslexia, suicidal ideation, and depression consisting of exposing the patient to multiple sessions of filtered and modulated music.
CAUTION!The treatment has not yet been substantiated in clinical trials and has been rejected by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
A form of self-regulation to promote relaxation, aid stress management, and/or foster well-being using the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner utters or concentrates on a simple phrase (such as “My arms feel heavy and warm”) and tries to induce physiological changes, such as increases in blood flow, to the body part on which he or she is concentrating.
aversive trainingAversion therapy.
Exercises that improve a person's agility and stability of gait and ability to prevent falls. These include stepping over obstacles on a rough or random surface, rapidly shifting direction while walking, developing core muscle strength, and improving ankle strength and lower extremity proprioception.
A technique to treat stress urinary incontinence in women in which the patient charts the number of urinations, the intervals between urination, and the volume of urine passed. The patient also notes the degree and frequency of incontinence. The intervals between urinations are gradually increased. Synonym: bladder drill; timed voiding
bowel training, bowel retraining
A program for assisting adult patients to reestablish regular bowel habits. Patients with chronic constipation, colostomies, fecal incontinence, or spinal cord injuries affecting the muscles involved in defecation may benefit from bowel training. Assessments include determining the etiology and duration of the bowel problem, the normal pattern, the use of enemas, suppositories, or laxatives to promote bowel evacuation, and the patient’s mental status and ability to cooperate with the planned program. Interventions include dietary changes (esp. increased intake of dietary fiber), supervised training to elicit evacuation at convenient times (esp. after meals), biofeedback, Kegel exercises, and psychotherapy.
The patient is encouraged to increase the dietary intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and whole grains, and to drink 3000 mL of fluid each day. The need to heed normal evacuatory urges is emphasized. Use of laxatives is discouraged, and the actions of stool softeners are explained. The advantages of generating evacuation 30 min after meals to enlist normal peristaltic action are communicated to the patient. Digital anal stimulation or insertion of a suppository, if indicated, is demonstrated.
Physical training for athletic events requiring prolonged effort, such as running a marathon, swimming a long distance, or climbing mountains.
Patients who participate in endurance sports are likely to lose weight and improve their well-being, and blood glucose and cholesterol levels. It is wise to initiate training slowly, avoid overuse injuries, and gradually increase workload.
Patients who have diabetes mellitus, joint disease, a history of smoking or chronic respiratory illnesses, atherosclerotic vascular disease, loss of consciousness or seizures, or complicated medical regimens should consult with health care professionals before beginning endurance training.
The use of repetitive body movements to build endurance, flexibility, or muscular strength.
1. The development in young children of specific behavior patterns for performing basic activities such as eating, dressing, using the toilet, and sleeping.
2. An educational tool in which learning of specific tasks is assigned to a structured time of the day, so that the task and the time are associated in the mind of the student.
3. The treatment is designed to encourage behavioral routines and productive time management.
Clinical education designed to inform and update staff about important ongoing projects, technologies, and therapeutic agents.
inspiratory muscle training
Any technique used to enhance ventilation by increasing respiratory coordination, endurance, and strength. Examples include breath-holding exercises, breathing against resistance, and incentive spirometry.
A form of physical conditioning in which periods of high-intensity exercise alternate with periods of lesser exertion or rest and recovery.
Techniques and equipment for people with functional deficits to help them move around safely. For the blind or those with low vision, orientation and mobility (OM) training is used. Orientation involves knowing one's location in space, and mobility a plan to get to one's desired location. For the blind or those with impaired vision, OM training also involves the development of sensory awareness and learning to use long canes, guide dogs, or electronic sensing aids.
pelvic floor muscle training Abbreviation: PFMT
Repetitively squeezing the urethral sphincter muscles and elevating the levator ani muscles. It is a treatment for urinary stress incontinence.
preclinical dental training
Study and mastery of the theory and techniques related to the various dental procedures required prior to treating human patients.
Repetitive exercises in which the contraction of a muscle is opposed by an applied force or weight. It is used to develop muscle size, strength, and endurance. Synonym: strength training
A form of group therapy in which people are given the opportunity to relate verbally and physically with complete candor and honesty to other members of the group. The goals of the therapy are to increase self-awareness, learn constructive ways of dealing with conflicts, establish a better sense of inner direction, and relate to other people with feelings of warmth and affection.
social skills training
The components of rehabilitation programs that focus on the skills necessary for effective interaction with other people.
strength trainingResistance training.
stress inoculation training
A treatment for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, in which the patient learns how to identify those cues that revive painful memories and then cope with them using techniques that desensitize him or her to these triggers. Relaxation techniques (such as deep breathing or muscle relaxation) are employed.
Teaching a child to control urination and defecation until placed on a toilet. The bowel movements of an infant habitually occur at the same time each day very early in life, but because the child does not have adequate neuromuscular control of bowel and bladder function until the end of the second year, it is not advisable to begin this training until then. Close to that time, placing the child on a small potty chair for a short period several times a day may allow him or her to stay dry. First the diapers are removed while the child is awake, then later removed during naps, and the child is told he or she should be able to stay dry. This schedule may need to be interrupted for several days to a week if the child does not remain dry.
To protect the bed, a rubber sheet should be used during the training period. Training pants or “pull-ups” may help in the transition from passive to active control of toilet habits. There is no difference in ease and timing of training between boys and girls, each taking about 3 to 6 months.
Children who are unsuccessful in remaining dry or controlling their bowels should not be punished. To do so may promote the later development of enuresis or constipation. In any event, it is neither abnormal nor harmful for training to be delayed until well into the third year of life. If not achieved by then, professional evaluation should be undertaken to detect the rare case of genitourinary or gastrointestinal abnormalities that may be contributing to such a delay.