By setting dose units below the thresholds, radiological protection aims to avoid deterministic and stochastic effects
As the real world is not deterministic it is important to examine the inclusion of stochastic effects
into deterministic models and this paper is a step towards doing this.
From the actual data collected, however, it appears that for such an outbreak, stochastic effects
are less crucial near the beginning and end of the outbreak episode.
16) This is the population that we believe is at the highest risk for potential stochastic effects
are observed during exposure at higher doses of ionizing radiation than those encountered in a normal environment.
can be recognized because founder effect and genetic drift in small populations produce a characteristic pattern of morph-frequency variation and morph loss (Heuch 1980; Barrett et al.
In either extreme, of course, it is well known that pricing and output levels are independent of structure; in such cases, a structural antitrust policy would have no impact on social welfare apart from possible deadweight losses or the stochastic effects
Systems Biology is now entering a mature phase in which the key issues are characterising uncertainty and stochastic effects
in mathematical models of biological systems.
It is the stochastic effects
that occur at any dose level that are of concern, as they are potentially carcinogenic and can cause gene mutations in subsequent generations.
These stochastic effects
can occur as cancer or genetic alterations, and it is impossible to determine who could develop them as a result of radiation exposure.
are random effects due to low-dose damage to single cells.