spontaneous abortion


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Related to spontaneous abortion: induced abortion, missed abortion

abortion

 [ah-bor´shun]
termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable. In the medical sense, this term and the term miscarriage both refer to the termination of pregnancy before the fetus is capable of survival outside the uterus. The term abortion is more commonly used as a synonym for induced abortion, the deliberate interruption of pregnancy, as opposed to miscarriage, which connotes a spontaneous or natural loss of the fetus. Because of this distinction made by the average layperson, care should be exercised in the use of the word abortion when speaking of a spontaneous loss of the fetus.

The technique chosen to terminate pregnancy depends on the stage of pregnancy and the policies of the institution and patient needs. It is rare for a fetus to survive if it weighs less than 500 g, or if the pregnancy is terminated before 20 weeks of gestation. These factors are, however, difficult to determine with a high degree of accuracy while the fetus is still in utero; survival of the fetus delivered near the end of the second trimester often depends to a great extent on the availability of personnel and equipment capable of supporting life until the infant develops sufficiently.

Viability of the fetus outside the uterus is frequently used as the determining factor in deciding the legality and morality of induced abortion. Whether this is a valid criterion is essentially based on whether one believes that the fetus is human from the moment of conception or that it achieves humanity at some point during physical development. Those who oppose abortion on moral grounds believe that the fetus is human or potentially human and that destruction of the fetal body is tantamount to murder. Many others have equally strong beliefs that abortion is a woman's right.

The liberalization of abortion laws has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of abortions performed in physicians' offices, clinics, and hospitals. While this has diminished the occurrence of septic abortions performed at the hands of unscrupulous abortionists and has improved the possibility of safe and uneventful physical recovery from an induced abortion, the issue remains controversial and charged with emotion. The health care provider who strongly objects to abortion is legally and morally free to choose not to participate in the procedure and is advised to avoid situations involving responsibility for the care of patients who have chosen abortion as a means of ending an unwanted pregnancy. Women who have made a decision to have an abortion need a safe, non-judgmental environment to recover physically and emotionally from the procedure.

The patient should know that other alternatives are available and that an abortion after 20 weeks is inadvisable for medical and other reasons. Preabortion counseling in the psychological, religious, and legal aspects of abortion should be readily available, with immediate referral to the proper resources. Although delay in carrying out the procedure may increase the risk of complications, no patient should be encouraged to go through with an abortion until she has had time and sufficient counseling to reach a rational decision. During postabortion counseling there should be a discussion of various methods of contraception. The client will need information on the advantages and disadvantages of each method, her responsibilities in preventing future unwanted pregnancies, and available help in initiating and following through on a program of effective contraception. She should be informed that women who have had two or more abortions run a greatly increased risk of miscarriage or spontaneous abortion in the first six months of subsequent pregnancies.
Patient Care. The type of care required and the complications to be avoided in abortion will depend on the stage of pregnancy at the time of termination and whether the abortion is spontaneous, is induced under sterile conditions, or is performed by an unskilled abortionist or the patient herself. Many women who choose to have an abortion are anxious and confused about the physical and psychological outcomes of the procedure. Therefore both pre- and postabortion counseling are recommended.

In cases of spontaneous or habitual abortion, patient care is directed toward emotional support of the patient and acceptance of her feelings of bitterness, grief, guilt, relief, and other emotions associated with the loss of the fetus. The patient should be able to express her feelings in an open, nonjudgmental, and nonthreatening environment.
complete abortion complete expulsion of all the products of conception.
criminal abortion termination of pregnancy by illegal interference, usually undertaken when legal induced abortion is unavailable. The most frequent complications are severe hemorrhage and sepsis, and for those who delay seeking medical attention the mortality rate is high.
early abortion abortion within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
elective abortion induced abortion done at the request of the mother for other than therapeutic reasons.
habitual abortion spontaneous abortion in three or more consecutive pregnancies before the 20th week of gestation.
incomplete abortion abortion in which parts of the products of conception are retained in the uterus.
induced abortion abortion brought on intentionally by medication or instrumentation.
inevitable abortion a condition in which vaginal bleeding has been profuse, membranes usually show gross rupturing, the cervix has become dilated, and abortion is almost certain.
infected abortion abortion associated with infection of the genital tract from retained material, with a febrile reaction.
missed abortion retention of dead products of conception in utero for more than 8 weeks.
septic abortion abortion associated with serious infection of the products of conception and endometrial lining of the uterus, leading to generalized infection; it is usually caused by pathogenic organisms of the bowel or vagina.
spontaneous abortion termination of pregnancy before the fetus is sufficiently developed to survive; called miscarriage by laypersons. In the United States this definition is confined to the termination of pregnancy before 20 weeks' gestation (based upon the date of the first day of the last normal menses). Chromosomal abnormalities cause at least half of spontaneous abortions.
therapeutic abortion abortion induced legally by a qualified physician to safeguard the health of the mother.
threatened abortion a condition in which vaginal bleeding is less than in inevitable abortion, the cervix is not dilated, and abortion may or may not occur; this is the presumed diagnosis when any bloody vaginal discharge or vaginal bleeding occurs in the first half of pregnancy.

spon·ta·ne·ous a·bor·tion

abortion that has not been artificially induced.Synonym(s): miscarriage

spontaneous abortion

spontaneous abortion

a termination of pregnancy before the twentieth week of gestation as a result of abnormalities of the conceptus or maternal environment. Up to 30% of pregnancies may end as spontaneous abortions, many caused by blighted ova that have congenital defects incompatible with life. Also called miscarriage. Compare induced abortion.

spontaneous abortion

Any unexpected pregnancy loss (miscarriage) during the first twenty weeks of gestation.

spontaneous abortion

Miscarriage, natural abortion Obstetrics A pregnancy ending in spontaneous loss of the embryo or fetus before 20 wks of gestation. See Abortion.

spon·ta·ne·ous a·bor·tion

(spon-tā'nē-ŭs ă-bōr'shŭn)
Abortion that has not been artificially induced.

spontaneous abortion

Premature and unexpected expulsion of the fetus from the womb for no immediately obvious reason. See also ABORTION.

abortion

premature expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception; termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable.

complete abortion
complete expulsion of all the products of conception.
early abortion
abortion within the first third of pregnancy.
epizootic bovine abortion
characterized by serious fetal disease followed by abortion. Endemic in California's coastal range and in the foothill region of the Sierra Nevada, USA. Necropsy findings in the fetus are diagnostic; they include profuse petechiation and severe granulomatous hepatitis. Cause appears to be a novel deltaproteobacterium closely related to members of the order Myxococcales. Transmitted by the tick, Ornithodoros coriaceus. Called also foothill abortion.
habitual abortion
spontaneous abortion occurring in three or more successive pregnancies.
incomplete abortion
abortion in which parts of the products of conception are retained in the uterus.
induced abortion
abortion procured by the veterinarian to eliminate a misalliance, to reduce wastage in animals in a feedlot, to encourage commencement of lactation earlier than would otherwise occur. In cattle manipulation through the rectal wall is a possible way of destroying the viability of the fetus. Induction by the administration of prostaglandins or corticosteroids is more usual. See also pregnancy termination.
infectious abortion
the common causes in the various species are:
cattle
Brucella abortus (brucellosis); Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (vibriosis); Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus; Leptospira pomona, L. hardjo (leptospirosis); Listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis); Arcanobacterium pyogenes; Aspergillus, Absidia and Mucor spp. (fungal abortion); bovine virus diarrhea virus; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis herpesvirus; Chlamydophila abortus; a deltaproteobacterium (epizootic bovine abortion); Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), Neospora caninum.
sheep and goats
Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (vibriosis); Campylobacter jejuni; Chlamydophila abortus (enzootic abortion of ewes); Listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis); Salmonella abortus-ovis; Brucella melitensis; Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis); Brucella ovis (limited occurrence); bluetongue virus; border disease.
horse
Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus; Actinobacillus equuli, A. equisimilis; Rhodococcus equi; leptospirosis, most commonly the pomona serogroup and less frequently serovar grippotyphosa; equine herpesvirus (EHV1); equine viral arteritis (EVA); equine arteritis; Potomac horse fever; and in the USA the mare reproductive loss syndrome associated with ingestion of the Eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum.
pig
Leptospira pomona, L. grippotyphosa, L. canicola, L. icterohaemorrhagiae (leptospirosis); Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (erysipelas); porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus; parvovirus; porcine circovirus 2; Aujesky's disease; classical swine fever; and African swine fever.
dog and cat
Brucella canis, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus.
missed abortion
retention of a dead embryo or fetus for more than 1 to 2 weeks.
pine needle abortion
a late-term abortion with retained fetal membranes in cattle caused by ingestion of isocupressic acid in the needles of Pinus spp., commonly P. ponderosa, but also P. jeffryi, P. contorta and Juniperus scopulorum and J. communis. Nutrient deficiency and tree management practices may promote ingestion off the ground as cattle graze through while eating early growing spring grass.
abortion rate
number of abortions as a percentage of the cows in the herd which were diagnosed pregnant in early pregnancy; the target is <2% but="" rates="" commonly="" approach="" 8%="" in="" dairy="" cattle="" and="" 5%="" in="" beef="">
septic abortion
abortion associated with serious infection of the uterus leading to generalized infection.
spontaneous abortion
abortion occurring naturally. See also spontaneous abortion.
abortion storm
a cluster of abortions occurring at about the same time or in rapid sequence within a group of pregnant females. See also equine viral abortion.
therapeutic abortion
abortion induced by a veterinarian for medical or other health reasons.

spontaneous

having no apparent external cause.

spontaneous abortion
most animal abortions are spontaneous in contradistinction to the surgically and medically procured abortions of humans. See also mismating, parturition induction.
avian spontaneous cardiomyopathy
an idiopathic disease of 1 to 4 week old turkey poults causing sudden death or a brief period of dyspnea; the heart is visibly dilated.
spontaneous internal hemorrhage
causes sudden death in most cases; causes include cardiac tamponade, aortic or atrial rupture, splenic rupture.
spontaneous pulmonary arteriopathy
spontaneous regression
when diseases resolve themselves without outside assistance.
spontaneous virus encephalitis
so called because the disease appears without the subject animal coming in contact with a known encephalitogenic agent. In most instances the occurrence is eventually explained by the presence of a hitherto unknown virus.

Patient discussion about spontaneous abortion

Q. I had a miscarriage 2 years back when I was obese.Can anyone guide? I had a miscarriage 2 years back when I was obese. But I am trying again after getting in to good shape and I am eating cautiously to ensure balanced diet. Will there by any problem in my delivery because of miscarriage? Can anyone guide?

A. It is quite a normal doubt because you already had miscarriage. The most important thing that you may have to do is to reveal your past history to your Gynecologist and seek their suggestion and assistance. I heard cases where people consume baby aspirin to prevent miscarriages. But I am not sure of how that medicine works with miscarriages. Be confident and follow good diet as you have been doing now and go for regular check-ups and try to know more information to better take care of you. I am strongly against self-medication and I shall suggest you to take meds with doctors advice.

More discussions about spontaneous abortion
References in periodicals archive ?
We observed substantial heterogeneity in the study-specific estimates for studies on spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, and moderate heterogeneity for studies on neonatal and infant mortality.
Women with depression often ask about the risks of preterm birth and spontaneous abortion associated with antidepressants.
An increased occurrence of spontaneous abortions and unrelated congenital malformations were recorded in affected families.
Women who have early pregnancy loss (before 13 weeks' gestation) are not expected to need facility-based care, and losses at or beyond 22 weeks are classified as fetal deaths, not spontaneous abortions.
The women who had taken anti-TNFs in the past, but not at the time of conception (cohort II), did have seemingly better outcomes: The 59 pregnancies (54 women) resulted in live births in 46 cases (including one of two twins), terminations in 2, and spontaneous abortions in 10 (17%).
8 Arsenic contaminated source of drinking water Tube well 108 Well 4 Duration of arsenic exposure 11--at least 15 years 81 0 years (Not exposed to arsenic) 31 Skin manifestation rates (%) 43 Table 3: Statistical analysis of spontaneous abortion and neonatal mortality in the surveyed areas Pregnancy outcomes Arsenic- Arsenic- Arsenic exposed exposed non-exposed area 1 area 2 area Spontaneous abortion 13.
When the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion, still birth, induced abortion for NTD, Down syndrome, or thalassaemia, or the newborn was found to have congenital malformation/genetic syndrome, the outcome was considered as abnormal.
found no significant effect of spontaneous abortion (in agreement with established worldwide data), but found a R.
Fibroids that jut into the uterine cavity increase the risk of spontaneous abortion, the researchers found.
These conditions can arise with either induced or spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, and can kill a woman if not treated promptly.
Exposure to these chemicals, known as endocrine disrupters, has been linked to spontaneous abortion and irregular ovulation in women, say the Duke University researchers.