splinter haemorrhage

splinter haemorrhage

A small, linear subungual haemorrhage, which is red when fresh and brown when aged, located at the distal 1/3 of the nailbed and classically associated with mitral stenosis.
 
Pathogenesis
The blood “leaks” into the avascular squames under the fingernails due to microemboli and/or increased capillary fragility. While splinter haemorrhages (SHs) are characteristic of acute and subacute bacterial endocarditis, they are more commonly due to trauma, occurring in up to 10% of normal subjects and in 40% of patients with mitral stenosis; SHs also occur in the retina in papilledema, due to retinal vein occlusion, subarachnoid haemorrhage or, rarely, trichinosis.

splinter haemorrhage

minute, linear, subungual haemorrhage; extends from free margin into nail bed; characteristic of mild nail trauma, following exposure to low oxygen tension (e.g. mountain air) or, more rarely, endocarditis
References in periodicals archive ?
We found a statistically significant relationship between the mean age of the patients and solar elastosis, splinter haemorrhage and longitudinal ridging.
d/ There is a splinter haemorrhage on the superotemporal rim
Splinter haemorrhages can be a warning sign however, for they may provide external evidence of a more sinister systemic malady and indicate bacterial endocarditis.
The haemorrhages found were mainly located at the posterior pole, to the findings of Coburn (1904) who found them mainly in the equatorial region, the classification of the four types of haemorrhages was the same as adopted by Baum and Bulpitt (1970) and if splinter haemorrhages are excluded as a group it is identical with the classification of Richman (1936) and McKeown (1941).
I also spotted two small splinter haemorrhages near his optic nerve at the back of his eye.
These are splinter haemorrhages, a sign of a heart infection.
Splinter haemorrhages are commonly visible in the distal portion of the nail plate, due to nail bed capillary abnormalities.
Some are minor, such as white spots and splinter haemorrhages caused by damage to the nail base or bed.