to erythromycin where isolates had MIC of > 256 [micro]g/ml (Tablel), spiramycin
, lincomycin (constitutive type) also to bacitracine, oflaxacine, nalidixic acid and tetracycline where strains X3 and V7 have MIC values 24 and 64 [micro]g/m, respectively to teracyclin (Table 1).
A ban, which requires approval by EU Agriculture Ministers, would hit the producers of four antibiotics - Tysolin phosphate, Bacitracin Zinc, Spiramycin
A 2-week treatment regimen with spiramycin
was started; general improvement followed, and the cough resolved.
In July 1999, virginiamycin, together with 3 other growth promoters--tylosin, spiramycin
, and bacitracin-was banned in the entire EU.
Thus, data collection began just after the ban of 4 antimicrobial growth promoters (bacitracin zinc, spiramycin
, virginiamycin, and tylosin phosphate) by the European Community (EC) Council Regulation (No.
In 2000, the Council of Agriculture in Taiwan prohibited the use of several antimicrobial agents (such as avoparcin, kanamycin, kitasamycin, lasalocid, spiramycin
, salinomycin, and streptomycin), which had been widely used as growth promoters or prophylactic agents in animal husbandry in Taiwan during the past 2 to 3 decades, because they may select for critical forms of resistance in human pathogens in food-producing animals (54).
The combined efforts of many scientists were needed to bring about the 1999 ban in Europe of spiramycin
, tylosin, virginiamycin, and bacitracin, each of which confers resistance to antibiotics used in clinical settings.
The most commonly used agents have been lincomycin and tylosin for controlling dysentery and Mycoplasma infections in swine and spiramycin
for treating mastitis in cattle.